# Temperature – Temperature Conversion Formulas, History and Definition including Fahrenheit, Celsius, Kelvin and Rankine

## Topics Covered

Background

The Fahrenheit Temperature Scale

The Celsius/Centigrade Temperature Scale

The Kelvin Temperature Scale

The Rankine Temperature Scale

Temperature Table

## Background

Temperature is a property of matter which reflects the quantity of energy of motion of the component particles. There are several scales used to measure this value (e.g., Kelvin, Celsius, Fahrenheit and Rankine).

## The Fahrenheit Temperature Scale

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736) invented the mercury thermometer in 1714. He also created the Fahrenheit temperature scale, a practical temperature scale where 0°F and 100°F corresponded to the coldest and hottest temperatures encountered in Western Europe.

Under the Fahrenheit temperature scale, water freezes at 32°F and 212°F.

The Fahrenheit scale is still widely used in America, although not in many other places.

 Conversion Formula °C → °F K → °F °R → °F Where TF = Temperature in °F TC = Temperature in °C TK = Temperature in Kelvin TR = Temperature in °R

## The Celsius/Centigrade Temperature Scale

The centigrade temperature scale was devised by Anders Celsius in 1744. According to the centigrade temperature scale water freezes at O°C and boils at 100°C.

While the units were originally called degrees centrigrade, they were renamed degrees Celsius in 1948.

 Conversion Formula °F → °C K → °C °R → °C Where TF = Temperature in °F TC = Temperature in °C TK = Temperature in Kelvin TR = Temperature in °R

## The Kelvin Temperature Scale

In 1848 William Thomson devised the Kelvin temperature scale which was derived based on thermodynamics, where 0K corresponds to absolute zero, or the coldest temperature theoretically possible and 273.15K is the freezing point of water. While zero has been reassigned according to the Kelvin temperature scale, the base unit of the Kelvin temperature scale is the same as the centigrade scale.

In 1954, the Kelvin temperature scale was selected as the metric unit of thermodynamic measure. In 1967, the unit of the Kelvin temperature scale was changed from degrees Kelvin (°K) to simply Kelvin (K).

 Conversion Formula °F → K °C → K °R → K Where TF = Temperature in °F TC = Temperature in °C TK = Temperature in Kelvin TR = Temperature in °R

## The Rankine Temperature Scale

In 1859, William John Rankine devised the Rankine thermodynamic temperature scale which, like the Kelvin scale assigned its zero value to thermodynamic absolute zero, but used the 1F as its base unit. Temperatures in the Rankine scale are denoted °R.

 Conversion Formula °F → °R K → °R °C → °R Where TF = Temperature in °F TC = Temperature in °C TK = Temperature in Kelvin TR = Temperature in °R

## Temperature Table

 K °C °F °R 0 -273.15 459.67 0 73.15 -200 -328 131.67 173.15 -100 -148 311.67 273.15 0 32 491.67 373.15 100 212 671.67 473.15 200 392 851.67 573.15 300 572 1031.67 673.15 400 752 1211.67 773.15 500 932 1391.67 873.15 600 1112 1571.67 973.15 700 1292 1751.67 1073.15 800 1472 1931.67 1173.15 900 1652 2111.67 1273.15 1000 1832 2291.67 255.37 -17.78 0 459.67 310.93 37.8 100 559.67 366.48 93.33 200 659.67 422.04 148.89 300 759.67 477.59 204.44 400 859.67 533.15 260 500 959.67 588.71 315.56 600 1059.67 644.26 371.11 700 1159.67 699.82 426.67 800 1259.67 755.37 482.22 900 1359.67 810.92 537.78 1000 1459.67

Primary author: AZoM.com

Date Added: May 16, 2006 | Updated: Jun 11, 2013