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Stainless Steel - Grade 310 (UNS S31000)

Chemical Formula

Fe, <0.25% C, 24-26% Cr, 19-22% Ni, <2% Mn, <1.5% Si, <0.45% P, <0.3% S

Topics Covered

Background

Key Properties

Composition

Mechanical Properties

Physical Properties

Grade Specification Comparison

Possible Alternative Grades

Corrosion Resistance

Heat Resistance

Heat Treatment

Welding

“Dual Certification”

Applications

Background

Grade 310, combining excellent high temperature properties with good ductility and weldability, is designed for high temperature service. It resists oxidation in continuous service at temperatures up to 1150°C provided reducing sulphur gases are not present. It is also used for intermittent service at temperatures up to 1040°C.

Grade 310S (UNS S31008) is used when the application environment involves moist corrodents in a temperature range lower than that which is normally considered "high temperature" service. The lower carbon content of 310S does reduce its high temperature strength compared to 310.

Like other austenitic grades these have excellent toughness, even down to cryogenic temperatures, although other grades are normally used in this environment.

Grade 310L (and proprietary versions of this grade), is a 0.03% maximum carbon version of 310, sometimes used for very specific corrosive environments, such as urea production.

Key Properties

These properties are specified for flat rolled product (plate, sheet and coil) in ASTM A240/A240M. Similar but not necessarily identical properties are specified for other products such as pipe and bar in their respective specifications.

Composition

Typical compositional ranges for grade 310 stainless steels are given in table 1.

Table 1. Composition ranges for 310 grade stainless steel

Grade

C

Mn

Si

P

S

Cr

Mo

Ni

N

310

min.

max.

-

0.25

-

2.00

-

1.50

-

0.045

-

0.030

24.0

26.0

-

19.0

22.0

-

310S

min.

max.

-

0.08

-

2.00

-

1.50

-

0.045

-

0.030

24.0

26.0

-

19.0

22.0

-

Mechanical Properties

Typical mechanical properties for grade 310 stainless steels are given in table 2.

Table 2. Mechanical properties of 310 grade stainless steel

Grade

Tensile Strength (MPa) min

Yield Strength 0.2% Proof (MPa) min

Elongation (% in 50mm) min

Hardness

Rockwell B (HR B) max

Brinell (HB)
max

310

515

205

40

95

217

310S

515

205

40

95

217

Physical Properties

Typical physical properties for annealed grade 310 stainless steels are given in table 3.

Table 3. Physical properties of 310 grade stainless steel in the annealed condition

Grade

Density (kg/m3)

Elastic Modulus (GPa)

Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (μm/m/°C)

Thermal Conductivity (W/m.K)

Specific Heat 0-100°C (J/kg.K)

Electrical Resistivity (nΩ.m)

0-100°C

0-315°C

0-538°C

at 100°C

at 500°C

310/S

7750

200

15.9

16.2

17.0

14.2

18.7

500

720

Grade Specification Comparison

Approximate grade comparisons for 310 stainless steels are given in table 4.

Table 4. Grade specifications for 310 grade stainless steel

Grade

UNS No

Old British

Euronorm

Swedish SS

Japanese JIS

BS

En

No

Name

310

S31000

310S24

-

1.4840

X15CrNi25-20

-

SUH 310

310S

S31008

310S16

-

1.4845

X8CrNi25-21

2361

SUS 310S

These comparisons are approximate only. The list is intended as a comparison of functionally similar materials not as a schedule of contractual equivalents. If exact equivalents are needed original specifications must be consulted.

Possible Alternative Grades

Possible alternative grades to grade 310 stainless steels are given in table 5.

Table 5. Possible alternative grades to 310 grade stainless steel

Grade

Why it might be chosen instead of 310

3CR12

Heat resistance is needed, but only to about 600°C.

304H

Heat resistance is needed, but only to about 800°C.

321

Heat resistance is needed, but only to about 900°C. Subsequent aqueous corrosion resistance also required.

253MA (2111HTR)

A slightly higher temperature resistance is needed than can be provided by 310. Better resistance to reducing sulphide atmosphere needed. Higher immunity from sigma phase embrittlement is required.

Corrosion Resistance

The high chromium content - intended to increase high temperature properties - also gives these grades good aqueous corrosion resistance. The PRE is approximately 25, and seawater resistance about 22°C, similar to that of Grade 316. Excellent resistance at normal temperatures, and when in high temperature service exhibits good resistance to oxidising and carburising atmospheres. Resists fuming nitric acid at room temperature and fused nitrates up to 425°C.

Subject to stress corrosion cracking but more resistant than Grades 304 or 316.

Heat Resistance

Good resistance to oxidation in intermittent service in air at temperatures up to 1040°C and 1150°C in continuous service. Good resistance to thermal fatigue and cyclic heating. Widely used where sulphur dioxide gas is encountered at elevated temperatures. Continuous use in 425-860°C range not recommended due to carbide precipitation, if subsequent aqueous corrosion resistance is needed, but often performs well in temperatures fluctuating above and below this range.

Grade 310 is generally used at temperatures starting from about 800 or 900°C - above the temperatures at which 304H and 321 are effective.

Heat Treatment

Solution Treatment (Annealing) - heat to 1040-1150°C and cool rapidly for maximum corrosion resistance. This treatment is also recommended to restore ductility after each 1000 hours of service above 650°C, due to long term precipitation of brittle sigma phase.

These grades cannot be hardened by thermal treatment.

Welding

Good characteristics suited to all standard methods. Grade 310S electrodes generally recommended for fusion welding. AS 1554.6 pre-qualifies welding of 310 with Grade 310 rods or electrodes.

“Dual Certification”

310 and 310S are sometimes stocked in "Dual Certified" form - mainly in plate and pipe. These items have chemical and mechanical properties complying with both 310 and 310S specifications.

Applications

Typical applications include:

         Furnace parts

         Oil burner parts

         Carburising boxes

         Heat Treatment baskets and jigs

         Heat Exchangers

         Welding filler wire and electrodes

 

Source: Atlas Steels Australia

 

For more information on this source please visit Atlas Steels Australia

 

Date Added: Oct 23, 2001 | Updated: Jul 12, 2013
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