This book provides the most up-to-date knowledge and data available on the reliability of lead-free solder interconnects. The content has been written by leading experts working in this important technology area. Both fundamental research and practical considerations are addressed.
Environmental regulations are driving the worldwide adoption of lead-free soldering technology for electronics packaging, board assembly, and related manufacturing operations. While a significant amount of research and development work has been conducted in recent years on manufacturing issues to enable the conversion to lead-free solders, data from studies related to the reliability of lead-free solder interconnects are still emerging.
Many research projects around the world have been undertaken to study lead-free solder reliability under different loading conditions. The results of these studies have been reported rather sporadically at various technical conferences. This is the first book dedicated specifically to this topic, which is of paramount importance to the electronics industry. The coverage is focused primarily on tin-silver-copper and tin-copper eutectic (or near eutectic) alloys—the primary lead-free solder alloys being adopted by the worldwide electronics industry.
This volume will be of particular interest to practitioners in the electronics industry, who need to understand the reliability of solder interconnects for design, testing, quality assurance, and failure analysis. It also will be of great value to industry and academic researchers, educators, and students.
About the Contributors
An “all star” team of internationally renowned experts, with in-depth knowledge in the many important areas of lead-free solder interconnect reliability, have contributed chapters to the book. Contributors represent U.S. and international government research facilities, universities, and industrial companies. The Editor is Dongkai Shangguan, who has been working on lead-free solder technology since 1991, first at Ford Motor Company and Visteon Corporation and now at Flextronics International. Dr. Shangguan has published over 100 papers and has been awarded a number of patents to date on lead-free solders and environmental technology. In 2002 he won the “Soldertec Lead-Free Soldering Award” in recognition of his long-term involvement in lead-free research, implementation, and industry leadership.
1. Lead-Free Soldering and Environmental Compliance: An Overview; D. Shangguan, Flextronics International
2. Microstructural Evolution and Interfacial Interactions in Lead-Free Solder Interconnects; Z. Mei, Cisco Systems
3. Fatigue and Creep of Lead-Free Solder Alloys: Fundamental Properties; P.T. Vianco, Sandia National Laboratories
4. Lead-Free Solder Joint Reliability Trends; J.-P. Clech, Electronics Packaging Solutions International Inc.
5. Chemical Interactions and Reliability Testing for Lead-Free Solder Interconnects; L.J. Turbini, Centre for Microelectronics Assembly and Packaging, Canada
6. Tin Whisker Growth on Lead-Free Solder Finishes; K.N. Tu, J.O. Suh, and A.T. Wu, UCLA
7. Accelerated Testing Methodology for Lead-Free Solder Interconnects; G. Grossmann, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research, Switzerland
8. Thermomechanical Reliability Prediction for Lead-Free Solder Interconnects; K. Kacker and S.K. Sitaraman, Georgia Institute of Technology
9. Design for Reliability: Finite-Element Modeling of Lead-Free Solder Interconnects; W. Dauksher, Agilent Technologies
10. Characterization and Failure Analyses of Lead-Free Solder Defects; R. Ghaffarian, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
11. Reliability of Interconnects with Conductive Adhesives; J. Liu and Z. Mo, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden
Pages: Approx. 350