To be completely effective most drugs have to reach the bloodstream. As a rule, this is done orally, via the bowels, with infusions, injections and with the latest “pharmaceutical dosage forms.”
One example is the transdermal system, where a specific dose of medication or micronized powders is absorbed through the skin. The specific dosage is inhaled and distributed via the bloodstream either through the lung (pulmonary delivery) or with the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity (nasally).
The different bioavailability for the various pharmaceutical forms is impacted by, among other things, the particle size of the carrier substance, or the active ingredient itself, which is critical with regards to a rational dosage recommendation.
Powders, as an independent type dosage form, play only a small part, but as a base material for other types of dosage forms, they are still highly relevant. In addition to their importance in the effectiveness of drugs, the particle size distribution play a vital role in the production process (quality control) and in the development of appropriate manufacturing techniques and plants.
The example below for the particle size distribution of ampicillin, a semi-synthetic antibiotic belonging to the group of beta-lactam antibiotics (penicillin), was respectively measured with a small volume dispersion unit in hexane, as the sample material dissolves in water as well as other solvents.
Before measuring, an externally prepared suspension was pre-dispersed in an ultrasonic bath for 30 seconds.
This information has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from materials provided by FRITSCH GMBH - Milling and Sizing.
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