Features of LYNXEYE Super Speed Detector for X-Ray Powder Diffraction

The LYNXEYE™ is a 1-dimensional detector for X-ray diffraction, based on Bruker AXS' compound silicon strip technology. Compared to a simple point detector the LYNXEYE dramatically increases measured intensities - without sacrificing resolution and peak shape. A Diffraction Solution equipped with a LYNXEYE records a typical powder pattern in approximately 1/200th of the time required using a point detector, with identical data quality.

D8 ADVANCE with LYNXEYE detector.

Figure 1. D8 ADVANCE with LYNXEYE detector.

The LYNXEYE fits to all Bruker AXS D4 and D8 DIFFRACTION SOLUTIONS. The LYNXEYE can be easily exchanged by any other point, linear, or 2-dimensional detector. There is no need for counting gas, cooling water or liquid nitrogen, making the LYNXEYE a compact, robust and maintenance-free detector.

Applications of X-Ray Powder Diffraction Detectors

The LYNXEYE is the perfect detector for all applications in X-ray powder diffraction, including phase identification, quantitative analysis, size-strain analysis, structure determination and refinement, as well as texture and strain analysis.

LYNXEYE detector.

Figure 2. LYNXEYE detector.

Development of Silicon Strip Detector Technology

The LYNXEYE was developed to meet the increasing needs of higher sample throughput. It perfectly complements the previous achievements in the development of SUPER SPEED SOLUTIONS™ with the Turbo X-Ray Source™ and detectors such as the VANTEC-1™.

The LYNXEYE is based on the silicon strip detector technology introduced by high energy physics [1, 2] and transfered to XRD applications [3, 4, 5]. Together with the innovative front-end electronics, its compound silicon strip technology provides optimum tuning of the silicon strip sensor to the requirements of the X-ray energy from 6 keV to 15 keV. The LYNXEYE allows a clear and sharp X-ray look at your powder sample.

Operation of Super Speed X-Ray Powder Diffraction Detectors

The 192 strips of the LYNXEYE detector act as 192 individual detectors, perfectly explaining the intensity gain presented in this publication. An additional gain of intensity can be predicted when using the LYNXEYE with a SUPER SPEED SOLUTION. While sealed tubes are typically operated at about 2 kW, a Turbo X-ray Source can be operated at up to 18 kW, providing another intensity gain of about a factor of 9. In all, a SUPER SPEED SOLUTION with the LYNXEYE detector can give a factor of above 1500 of intensity gain compared to standard diffraction systems, when operating with identical measurement speed. This gain can either be used for an incredible increase of sample throughput, or for a tremendous increase in data quality or sensibility due to increased statistical relevance of the measured data.

Features of LYNXEYE X-Ray Powder Diffraction Detectors

The features of the LYNXEYE detector are outlined in the following:

  • Super Speed data collection - no compromises
  • „Fits into D4 ENDEAVOR and D8 DIFFRACTION „SOLUTIONS
  • Perfectly suited for Bragg-Brentano para-focusing „and pure Ka1 Vario1 focusing geometries
  • Outstanding intensity gain of up to a factor of „almost 200, allowing extremely fast measurements
  • Excellent resolution and line profile shape virtually „identical to point detector measurements
  • Fluorescence background suppression „
  • No gas, cooling water or liquid nitrogen „
  • Maintenance-free detector „
  • With the LYNXEYE hours of data collection become „minutes - without compromising data quality

Super Speed Data Acquisition with LYNXEYE X-Ray Powder Detectors

The excellent performance of the LYNXEYE detector can be best seen by comparison with a scintillation point detector. For this purpose, systematic measurements have been performed on the NIST standard reference materials SRM 1976 (corundum) and SRM 660a (LaB6). Instrument configuration and measurement parameters are given in Table 1.

Table 1. Instrument and measurement parameters for SRM 1976 and 660a investigations.

D8 Advance Properties

Description

Radius

250 mm

Tube Power

40 kV / 40 mA

Soller slits

2.5°, prim. & sec.

Scan speed

3° 2è / minute

Scintillation counter:

Divergence slits

0.5°, prim. & sec.

Detector slit

0.1 mm

LYNXEYE:

Divergence slit

0.5°, prim.

Detector window

3° 2è

Table 2. Instrument and measurement parameters for hematite investigations.

D8 Advance Properties

Description

Radius

250 mm

Tube Power

35 kV / 45 mA

Soller slits

2.5°, prim. & sec.

Divergence

0.5° primary

Scan speed

3° 2è / minute

LYNXEYE Window

3° 2è

Comparison of X-Ray Powder Diffraction Detectors

Figure 3 shows the measurement results obtained on SRM1976 in the angular range from 20° to 80° in 2è using a scintillation counter and the LYNXEYE, with the D8 goniometer always running at the same speed. The relative intensities are scaled to the 100% reflection. The magnification highlights the angular range from 56° to 62° in 2è. As can be seen both detectors provide nearly identical resolution, peak shape and peak-to-background ratio, but the intensity gain observed for the LYNXEYE detector is almost 200 comparing the integrated intensities underneath the reflection!

NIST SRM 1976 measured with both a scintillation counter (black line) and a LYNXEYE (red line).

Figure 3. NIST SRM 1976 measured with both a scintillation counter (black line) and a LYNXEYE (red line).

Figure 4a displays SRM 660a measured with both detectors from 20° to 145° in 2è and fitted with TOPAS. As expected, the observed full width at half maximum (FWHM) over the entire angular range is virtually identical for both detectors. In Figure 4b the 011 reflection of SRM 660a is shown for the LYNXEYE. Note the high resolution of about 0.037° and the excellent, almost symmetric line profile shape, indicating that this detector is ideal for profile analysis work.

NIST SRM 660a peak widths (FWHM) versus 2è as fitted with TOPAS. Figure 4b. 011 reflection of SRM 660a and TOPAS fitting result (red line).

Figure 4a. NIST SRM 660a peak widths (FWHM) versus 2è as fitted with TOPAS. Figure 4b. 011 reflection of SRM 660a and TOPAS fitting result (red line).

X-Ray Powder Diffraction Analysis Software

When investigating iron or cobalt containing samples using Cu-radiation the peak-to-background ratio (ptb) suffers due to an increased background caused by sample fluorescence (fig. 5a). When switching to Co-radiation or an energy dispersive detector such as Sol-X is inopportune the ptb ratio can be significantly improved by optimizing the energy discrimination window. The LYNXEYE provides a fully software supported capability for setting both the lower level and discriminator width. The user can optimize the ptb improving the data quality (fig. 5b) while maintaining the measurement speed provided by the 1-D LYNXEYE detector. By optimizing the discriminator settings the ptb ratio could be improved from about 4 to 30 for the hematite measurement.

Measurements recorded on a hematite sample with standard (black line) and optimized discriminator settings (red line). Figure 5b. Zoomed scan range at the 100% reflection. The data are normalized to the maximum intensity.

Figure 5a. Measurements recorded on a hematite sample with standard (black line) and optimized discriminator settings (red line). Figure 5b. Zoomed scan range at the 100% reflection. The data are normalized to the maximum intensity.

This information has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from materials provided by Bruker X-Ray Analysis.

For more information on this source, please visit Bruker X-Ray Analysis.

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