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Stainless Steel - Grade 310 (UNS S31000)

Grade 310, combining excellent high temperature properties with good ductility and weldability, is designed for high temperature service. It resists oxidation in continuous service at temperatures up to 1150 °C provided reducing sulphur gases are not present. It is also used for intermittent service at temperatures up to 1040 °C.

Grade 310S (UNS S31008) is used when the application environment involves moist corrodents in a temperature range lower than that which is normally considered "high temperature" service. The lower carbon content of 310S does reduce its high temperature strength compared to 310.

Like other austenitic grades these have excellent toughness, even down to cryogenic temperatures, although other grades are normally used in this environment.

Grade 310L (and proprietary versions of this grade), is a 0.03% maximum carbon version of 310, sometimes used for very specific corrosive environments, such as urea production.

Key Properties

These properties are specified for flat rolled product (plate, sheet and coil) in ASTM A240/A240M. Similar but not necessarily identical properties are specified for other products such as pipe and bar in their respective specifications.


Typical compositional ranges for grade 310 stainless steels are given in table 1.

Table 1. Composition ranges for 310 grade stainless steel

Grade C Mn Si P S Cr Mo Ni N
310 min.
- 19.0
310S min.
- 19.0

Mechanical Properties

Typical mechanical properties for grade 310 stainless steels are given in table 2.

Table 2. Mechanical properties of 310 grade stainless steel

Grade Tensile Strength (MPa) min Yield Strength 0.2% Proof (MPa) min Elongation (% in 50 mm) min Hardness
Rockwell B (HR B) max Brinell (HB) max
310 515 205 40 95 217
310S 515 205 40 95 217

Physical Properties

Typical physical properties for annealed grade 310 stainless steels are given in table 3.

Table 3. Physical properties of 310 grade stainless steel in the annealed condition

Grade Density (kg/m3) Elastic Modulus (GPa) Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (μm/m/°C) Thermal Conductivity (W/m.K) Specific Heat 0-100 °C (J/kg.K) Electrical Resistivity (nΩ.m)
0-100 °C 0-315 °C 0-538 °C at 100 °C at 500 °C
310/S 7750 200 15.9 16.2 17.0 14.2 18.7 500 720

Grade Specification Comparison

Approximate grade comparisons for 310 stainless steels are given in table 4.

Table 4. Grade specifications for 310 grade stainless steel

Grade UNS No Old British Euronorm Swedish SS Japanese JIS
BS En No Name
310 S31000 310S24 - 1.4840 X15CrNi25-20 - SUH 310
310S S31008 310S16 - 1.4845 X8CrNi25-21 2361 SUS 310S

These comparisons are approximate only. The list is intended as a comparison of functionally similar materials not as a schedule of contractual equivalents. If exact equivalents are needed original specifications must be consulted.

Possible Alternative Grades

Possible alternative grades to grade 310 stainless steels are given in table 5.

Table 5. Possible alternative grades to 310 grade stainless steel

Grade Why it might be chosen instead of 310
3CR12 Heat resistance is needed, but only to about 600 °C.
304H Heat resistance is needed, but only to about 800 °C.
321 Heat resistance is needed, but only to about 900 °C. Subsequent aqueous corrosion resistance also required.
A slightly higher temperature resistance is needed than can be provided by 310. Better resistance to reducing sulphide atmosphere needed. Higher immunity from sigma phase embrittlement is required.

Corrosion Resistance

The high chromium content - intended to increase high temperature properties - also gives these grades good aqueous corrosion resistance. The PRE is approximately 25, and seawater resistance about 22 °C, similar to that of Grade 316. Excellent resistance at normal temperatures, and when in high temperature service exhibits good resistance to oxidising and carburising atmospheres. Resists fuming nitric acid at room temperature and fused nitrates up to 425 °C.

Subject to stress corrosion cracking but more resistant than Grades 304 or 316.

Heat Resistance

Good resistance to oxidation in intermittent service in air at temperatures up to 1040 °C and 1150 °C in continuous service. Good resistance to thermal fatigue and cyclic heating. Widely used where sulphur dioxide gas is encountered at elevated temperatures. Continuous use in 425-860 °C range not recommended due to carbide precipitation, if subsequent aqueous corrosion resistance is needed, but often performs well in temperatures fluctuating above and below this range.

Grade 310 is generally used at temperatures starting from about 800 or 900 °C - above the temperatures at which 304H and 321 are effective.

Heat Treatment

Solution Treatment (Annealing) - heat to 1040-1150 °C and cool rapidly for maximum corrosion resistance. This treatment is also recommended to restore ductility after each 1000 hours of service above 650 °C, due to long term precipitation of brittle sigma phase.

These grades cannot be hardened by thermal treatment.


Good characteristics suited to all standard methods. Grade 310S electrodes generally recommended for fusion welding. AS 1554.6 pre-qualifies welding of 310 with Grade 310 rods or electrodes.

“Dual Certification”

310 and 310S are sometimes stocked in "Dual Certified" form - mainly in plate and pipe. These items have chemical and mechanical properties complying with both 310 and 310S specifications.


Typical applications include:

  • Furnace parts
  • Oil burner parts
  • Carburising boxes
  • Heat Treatment baskets and jigs
  • Heat Exchangers
  • Welding filler wire and electrodes


  1. Rajiv Mediratta Rajiv Mediratta India says:

    How does 310 perform if heated to 300 deg C with alkali  and cooled to ambient temp for an acid reaction- on a regular basis - for use as  a reaction vessel.
    Which is more suitable 310 or 316 or do you recommend any other grade of SS.

  2. Ruma Roy Ruma Roy India says:

    Can I use 310 grade S.S pipe as 1050 deg.C Tube funace

    • Manish Gandhi Manish Gandhi India says:


  3. Anthony Trevino Anthony Trevino United States says:

    What the difference in ER310 and M310 welding rods?

  4. shyam maloo shyam maloo India says:

    Work hardening characteristics of AISI 310 grade at different strain rates at R.T.?

  5. agm npd agm npd India says:

    Can somebody tell me whether this SS 310/310S can be extra deep drawn?

  6. Mahdi GHRIBI Mahdi GHRIBI Tunisia says:

    What is the cooling rate °C/min ( /mm thickness) for for forced air cooled vessels during sollution annealing.

  7. meysam farahmand meysam farahmand Iran says:

    i want stress-strain curve for modeling plasticity behavior of this material during thermal load. where can i find that?

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of AZoM.com.

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