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Stainless Steel - Grade 410 (UNS S41000)

Chemical Formula

Fe, <0.15% C, 11.5-13.5% Cr, >0.75% Ni, <1.0% Mn, <1.0% Si, <0.04% P, <0.03% S

Topics Covered

Introduction
Key Properties
    Composition
    Mechanical Properties
    Physical Properties
    Grade Specification Comparison
    Possible Alternative Grades
Corrosion Resistance
Heat Resistance
Heat Treatment
Welding
Machining
Applications

Introduction

Grade 410 stainless steels are general-purpose martensitic stainless steels containing 11.5% chromium, which provide good corrosion resistance properties. However, the corrosion resistance of grade 410 steels can be further enhanced by a series of processes such as hardening, tempering and polishing. Quenching and tempering can harden grade 410 steels. They are generally used for applications involving mild corrosion, heat resistance and high strength.

Martensitic stainless steels are fabricated using techniques that require final heat treatment. These grades are less resistant to corrosion when compared to that of austenitic grades. Their operating temperatures are often affected by their loss of strength at high temperatures, due to over-tempering and loss of ductility at sub-zero temperatures.

Key Properties

The properties displayed below are applicable to bar products of ASTM A276. Other products such as forgings, wire and plate may not have similar properties.

Composition

The compositional ranges of grade 410 stainless steels are displayed below.

Table 1 Composition ranges of grade 410 stainless steels

Grade

C

Mn

Si

P

S

Cr

Ni

410

min.

max.

-

0.15

-

1

-

1

-

0.04

-

0.03

11.5

13.5

0.75

Mechanical Properties

The typical mechanical properties of grade 410 stainless steels are listed in the following table:

Table 2 - Mechanical properties of grade 410 stainless steels

Tempering Temperature (°C)

Tensile Strength (MPa)

Yield Strength 0.2% Proof (MPa)

Elongation (% in 50mm)

Hardness Brinell (HB)

Impact Charpy V (J)

Annealed *

480 min

275 min

16 min

-

-

204

1475

1005

11

400

30

316

1470

961

18

400

36

427

1340

920

18.5

405

#

538

985

730

16

321

#

593

870

675

20

255

39

650

300

270

29.5

225

80

*Annealed properties of cold finished bar, which pertain to Condition A of ASTM A276.
# Tempering of grade 410 steels should be avoided at temperatures of 425-600°C, owing to associated low impact resistance.

Physical Properties

The physical properties of grade 410 stainless steels in the annealed condition are tabulated below:

Table 3 - Physical properties of annealed grade 410 stainless steels

Grade

Density (kg/m3)

Elastic Modulus (GPa)

Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
(μm/m/°C)

Thermal Conductivity
(W/m.K)

Specific Heat 0-100°C
(J/kg.K)

Electrical Resistivity (nΩ.m)

0-100°C

0-315°C

0-538°C

at 100°C

at 500°C

410

7800

200

9.9

11

11.5

24.9

28.7

460

570

Grade Specification Comparison

Grade comparisons of 410 stainless steels are outlined in the following table:

Table 4 - Grade specifications of 410 grade stainless steels

Grade

UNS No

Old British

Euronorm

Swedish SS

Japanese JIS

BS

En

No

Name

410

S41000

410S21

56A

1.4006

X12Cr13

2302

SUS 410

Possible Alternative Grades

The table below provides the suitable alternative grades to 410 stainless steels:

Table 5 - Possible alternative grades to 410 grade stainless steels

Grade

Reasons for choosing the grade

416

High machinability is required, and the lower corrosion resistance of 416 is acceptable.

420

A higher hardened strength or hardness than can be obtained from 410 is needed.

440C

A higher hardened strength or hardness than can be obtained even from 420 is needed.

Corrosion Resistance

Grade 410 stainless steels are resistant to hot gases, steam, food, mild acids and alkalies, fresh water and dry air. These steels obtain maximum corrosion and heat resistance through hardening. However, grade 410 steels are less corrosion resistant than austenitic grades and grade 430 ferritic alloys containing 17% chromium. Smooth surface finish offers improved performance of steels.

Heat Resistance

Grade 410 steels have good scaling resistance at temperatures of up to 650°C. However, the mechanical properties of the material will tend to reduce at temperatures ranging from 400 to 580°C.

Heat Treatment

Annealing - Grade 410 steels can be fully annealed at temperatures from 815 to 900°C, followed by slow furnace cooling and air-cooling. Process annealing of grade 410 steels can be carried out at temperatures ranging from 650 to 760°C and air-cooled.

Hardening – Hardening of grade 410 steels can be performed at 925 to 1010°C, followed by air and oil quenching. Heavy sections of grade 410 need to be oil quenched. Tempering, to enhance the mechanical properties and hardness of grade 410 steels, follows this process. It is not recommended to perform tempering at temperatures from 400 to 580°C.

Welding

Grade 410 steels can be welded using all conventional welding techniques, but the materials should pre-heated at 150 to 260°C followed by post-weld annealing treatment, to mitigate cracking. Grade 410 welding rods are recommended for tempering and post-hardening. In the "as welded" conditions, grade 309 filler rods can be used to achieve a ductile joint.

According to AS 1554.6 standards, grade 309 electrodes or rods are preferred for welding 410 steels.

Machining

Grade 410 steels can be easily machined in highly tempered or annealed conditions. However, it is hard to machine grade 410 steels if they are hardened above 30HRC. Free machining grade 416 is the best alternative.

Applications

Grade 410 stainless steels find applications in the following:

  • Bolts, screws, bushings and nuts
  • Petroleum fractionating structures
  • Shafts, pumps and valves
  • Mine ladder rungs
  • Gas turbines

 

Date Added: Oct 23, 2001 | Updated: Apr 25, 2014
Comments
  1. Sandeep Saxena Sandeep Saxena India says:

    Is SS 410 magnetic?

    • John Kocher John Kocher United States says:

      Yes!

  2. Ranjit Singh Ranjit Singh India says:

    What is Impact Value of SS 410?

    • Kris Walker Kris Walker AZoNetwork Team Member says:

      Hi Ranjit,

      Thanks for your question. The Charpy impact values for SS410 are stated in Table 2 - Mechanical properties of grade 410 stainless steels, column 6.

      Many Thanks,

      Kris

  3. Kent Neal Kent Neal United States says:

    What tool geometry works best for 410SS machining for both Milling and turning??

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of AZoM.com.
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