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Stainless Steel - Grade 410 (UNS S41000)

Chemical Formula

Fe, <0.15% C, 11.5-13.5% Cr, >0.75% Ni, <1.0% Mn, <1.0% Si, <0.04% P, <0.03% S

Topics Covered

Background

Key Properties

Composition

Mechanical Properties

Physical Properties

Grade Specification Comparison

Possible Alternative Grades

Corrosion Resistance

Heat Resistance

Heat Treatment

Welding

Machining

Applications

Background

Grade 410 is the basic martensitic stainless steel; like most non-stainless steels it can be hardened by a "quench-and-temper" heat treatment. It contains a minimum of 11.5 per cent chromium, just sufficient to give corrosion resistance properties. It achieves maximum corrosion resistance when it has been hardened and tempered and then polished. Grade 410 is a general purpose grade often supplied in the hardened, but still machinable condition, for applications where high strength and moderate heat and corrosion resistance are required.

Martensitic stainless steels are optimised for high hardness, and other properties are to some degree compromised. Fabrication must be by methods that allow for poor weldability and usually the need for a final heat treatment. Corrosion resistance of the martensitic grades is lower than that of the common austenitic grades, and their useful operating temperature range is limited by their loss of ductility at sub-zero temperatures and loss of strength by over-tempering at elevated temperatures.

Key Properties

These properties are specified for bar product in ASTM A276. Similar but not necessarily identical properties are specified for other products such as plate, wire and forgings in their respective specifications.

Composition

Typical compositional ranges for grade 410 stainless steels are given in table 1.

Table 1. Composition ranges for 410 grade stainless steel

Grade

C

Mn

Si

P

S

Cr

Mo

Ni

N

410

min.

max.

-

0.15

-

1.00

-

1.00

-

0.040

-

0.030

11.5

13.5

-

0.75

-

Mechanical Properties

Typical mechanical properties for grade 410 stainless steels are given in table 2.

Table 2. Mechanical properties of 410 grade stainless steel

Tempering Temperature (°C)

Tensile Strength (MPa)

Yield Strength 0.2% Proof (MPa)

Elongation (% in 50mm)

Hardness Brinell (HB)

Impact Charpy V (J)

Annealed *

480 min

275 min

16 min

-

-

204

1310

1000

16

388

30

316

1240

960

14

325

36

427

1405

950

16

401

#

538

985

730

16

321

#

593

870

675

20

255

39

650

755

575

23

225

80

* Annealed properties are specified for Condition A of ASTM A276, for cold finished bar.

# Due to associated low impact resistance this steel should not be tempered in the range 425-600°C

Physical Properties

Typical physical properties for annealed grade 410 stainless steels are given in table 3.

Table 3. Physical properties of 410 grade stainless steel in the annealed condition

Grade

Density (kg/m3)

Elastic Modulus (GPa)

Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
(
μm/m/°C)

Thermal Conductivity
(W/m.K)

Specific Heat 0-100°C
(J/kg.K)

Electrical Resistivity (nΩ.m)

0-100°C

0-315°C

0-538°C

at 100°C

at 500°C

410

7750

200

9.9

11.4

11.6

24.9

28.7

460

570

Grade Specification Comparison

Approximate grade comparisons for 410 stainless steels are given in table 4.

Table 4. Grade specifications for 410 grade stainless steel

Grade

UNS No

Old British

Euronorm

Swedish SS

Japanese JIS

BS

En

No

Name

410

S41000

410S21

56A

1.4006

X12Cr13

2302

SUS 410

These comparisons are approximate only. The list is intended as a comparison of functionally similar materials not as a schedule of contractual equivalents. If exact equivalents are needed original specifications must be consulted.

Possible Alternative Grades

Possible alternative grades to grade 410 stainless steels are given in table 5.

Table 5. Possible alternative grades to 410 grade stainless steel

Grade

Why it might be chosen instead of 410

416

High machinability is required, and the lower corrosion resistance of 416 is acceptable.

420

A higher hardened strength or hardness than can be obtained from 410 is needed.

440C

A higher hardened strength or hardness than can be obtained even from 420 is needed.

Corrosion Resistance

410 resists dry atmosphere, fresh water, mild alkalies and acids, food, steam and hot gases. Must be hardened for maximum heat and corrosion resistance. Performance is best with a smooth surface finish. Less corrosion resistant than the austenitic grades and also less than 17% chromium ferritic alloys such as Grade 430.

Heat Resistance

Good resistance to scaling up to approximately 650°C, but generally not recommended for use in temperatures between 400 and 580°C, because of the reduction in mechanical properties.

Heat Treatment

Annealing

Full anneal - 815-900°C, slow furnace cool to 600°C and then air cool.

Process Anneal - 650-760°C and air cool.


Hardening

Heat to 925-1010°C, followed by quenching in oil or air. Oil quenching is necessary for heavy sections. Temper, generally within the range 200-400°C, to obtain a wide variety of hardness values and mechanical properties as indicated in the accompanying table.

The tempering range 400-580°C should generally be avoided.

Welding

Readily welded by all standard methods, but a pre-heat of 150-260°C and post-weld annealing treatment is required to reduce the possibility of cracking. Use Grade 410 welding rod if post hardening and tempering is involved. If parts are to be used in the "as welded" condition, a ductile joint can be achieved by using Grade 309 filler rod.

AS 1554.6 pre-qualifies welding of 410 with Grade 309 rods or electrodes.

Machining

In the annealed or highly tempered conditions grade 410 is relatively easily machined, but if hardened to above 30HRC machining becomes more difficult. Free machining grade 416 is a very readily machined alternative.

Applications

Typical applications include:

         Bolts

         Nuts

         Screws

         Bushings

         Pump and valve parts and shafts

         Steam and gas turbine parts

         Petroleum fractionating towers

         Mine ladder rungs

 

Source: Atlas Steels Australia

 

For more information on this source please visit Atlas Steels Australia

 

Date Added: Oct 23, 2001 | Updated: Jul 12, 2013
Comments
  1. Sandeep Saxena Sandeep Saxena India says:

    Is SS 410 magnetic?

    • John Kocher John Kocher United States says:

      Yes!

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