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The Role of Sulfur Sampling Systems in Achieving Tier 3 Gasoline Standards

The Role of Sulfur Sampling Systems in Achieving Tier 3 Gasoline Standards

Even though Sub Part Ja compliance projects, refiners will have a new objective to meet, as deadlines for implementation of Tier 3 gasoline standards are rapidly approaching. [More]
Using Hand-Held X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer for On-Demand Measurements

Using Hand-Held X-Ray Fluorescence Analyzer for On-Demand Measurements

A non-destructive, non-invasive testing procedure, employed to verify and identify the chemical composition of solid, liquid, and powder metal coatings and alloys, is X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. [More]
Transmittance and Variable Angle Reflectance of Thin Film Coatings

Transmittance and Variable Angle Reflectance of Thin Film Coatings

Thin films (10 µm or less) are a huge business, used in a wide range of modern products. Thicker “protection” films or “hard coats” are used in a variety of consumer products, such as automotive wheels, door knobs, and eye glass lenses. [More]
Controlling Transpiration in Storage of Chemical Standards

Controlling Transpiration in Storage of Chemical Standards

Transpiration is a process that is largely ignored when reliable measurements are carried out. During this process, water vapor passes from the inside of a container to the outside. It is a systematic error that causes an increase in the concentration of a solution over time. [More]
Examining Influencing Factors on Inorganic Standard Transpiration

Examining Influencing Factors on Inorganic Standard Transpiration

The variables that affect the transpiration rate of water from polyethylene bottles include the storage temperature, in addition to factors such as torque applied to the cap. [More]
Studying the Influence of Containers on Transpiration of Inorganic Standards

Studying the Influence of Containers on Transpiration of Inorganic Standards

Even when stored for short periods of time, measurable systematic errors in the certified values of CRMs can be generated due to a significant transpiration of water from polyethylene and borosilicate glass bottles. [More]
Introduction to Heat Transfer Fluids - Properties and Industrial Applications

Introduction to Heat Transfer Fluids - Properties and Industrial Applications

The industrial applications of heat transfer fluids are diverse, ranging from simple, static design to advanced multi-loop systems performing numerous functions in a manufacturing operation. [More]
Using Plasma Etching to Micromachine Silicon Structure on Thin Membranes

Using Plasma Etching to Micromachine Silicon Structure on Thin Membranes

Micromachining of detailed silicon structures on thin membranes is considered to be a principal microelectromechanical system (MEMS) fabrication technique. However, it is a highly difficult process. [More]
Manufacturing of X-Ray Lenses with the Application of Bosch™ Deep Silicon Etch

Manufacturing of X-Ray Lenses with the Application of Bosch™ Deep Silicon Etch

The trends in X-ray optical devices are towards deeper optics and/or shrinking dimensions, this includes zone plates, refractive lenses, multilayer Laue lenses, curved mirrors and multilayers. [More]
Hardness Testing and Specimen Preparation

Hardness Testing and Specimen Preparation

Hardness testing is often used for material assessment, in research and development work, and in quality control of production processes. It indicates the properties of a material such as wear resistance, ductility, and strength. [More]