For over a century, Carver has set the standard for precision hydraulic and pneumatic presses. Today, the company is able to offer a greater range of sizes, options and features than any other line of presses in the world. In this article, we will take a look at the first press Carver ever manufactured: The Carver Model C.
A Brief History of Hydraulics
Joseph Bramah is the name associated with the invention of the hydraulic press, and Bramah patented his first device in 1795. Today’s modern hydraulic systems are fundamentally based on the same principles as Bramah’s machine: apply a relatively small force across a small area of an incompressible fluid, the fluid should exert a large force over a correspondingly large area according to Pascal’s principle.
In Bramah’s press, applying a controlled force to a lever would consequently apply moderate pressure to a fluid, which, in turn, would apply a greater force to a large piston.
Diagram of an early hydraulic press. Applying force to the lever, O, pushes down a small piston in cylinder A. This produces a larger force from the large piston in cylinder C. Image Credit: Carver, Inc.
The basic idea incorporated into Bramah’s press would soon have extensive and wide-ranging implications. New hydraulic press models emerged, and the technology was quickly adopted, finding numerous applications in industry and research.
One of the first applications was hydraulic extrusion, in which a hydraulic press could be applied to extrude molten lead (or other soft metals); a pivotal central role in the early part of the industrial revolution, where they were employed in metal-forming applications such as forging and molding amongst others.
The Introduction of the Model C Press
Hydraulic presses did not only find use in the “heavy” industry, however. In 1828, Dutch chemist Coenraad Johannes Van Houten decided to use hydraulic presses in the chocolate manufacturing process.2
Van Houten designed a press with the capacity to squeeze out the fat (cocoa butter) and pulverize it into a fine powder with ease - which would become known as Dutch cocoa. This process facilitated more efficient industrial-scale production of cocoa powder.
This is where the Carver Model C came into the play. Van Houten’s technique for cocoa powder production became a cornerstone of the chocolate industry as it rapidly expanded throughout the 19th century.
The first Model C hydraulic press was created in 1912, and it was used for the lab testing of cocoa production.
This testing led Carver to develop an entire range of industrial-scale “cocoa” presses that were manufactured throughout the early 20th century. These presses allowed chocolate manufacturers such as Hershey’s and Nestle to separate cocoa beans into cocoa butter and cocoa powder with greater efficiency.
One hundred ten years later, companies are still using the Model C press for this exact function. Each year, world-leading premium chocolate companies still buy and use the Carver’s hydraulic press in their product development labs.
The Evolution of the Model C
Since it first arrived on the scene, the Model C quickly found several uses beyond chocolate processing.
Materials researchers worldwide now apply the Model C when testing ceramics, composites, construction materials, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and a number of other products.
Commonly, quality and performance testing applications are a feature, with the Model C facilitating accurate measurement of strength, flow characteristics and color dispersion. What is more, the Model C is also used for crushing, encapsulation, laminating, molding, extrusion and many other applications.
Over the years, the model C press has found its way into almost every corner of industry and scientific research as it has spread across the globe.
From chocolate manufacturing to materials research - the Carver Model C. Image Credit: Carver, Inc.
In fact, thanks to its handy benchtop size, precision force application and robust heavy-duty construction, the Carver Model C press is found in more laboratory applications than any other press.5
The Carver Model C is renowned for its reliability and precision, which makes this unit a real workhorse for physical testing and small-scale manufacturing. The Model C press is commonly used in applications such as pharmaceutical pelletizing and facilitating oil content measurement in foodstuffs such as chips and nuts.3,4
One of the main applications of the Model C today is in the manufacture of test plaques for physical testing in the plastics, rubber and silicone industries.
The Model C’s design has changed only slightly over the last 110 years. It is still operated manually, and its standard features include analog gauges with the same heavy construction and 12-ton clamping force.
However, Carver has also introduced a complete range of compatible accessories to modify the Model C for advanced applications such as ASTM test plaque or bar molding, pellet making for infrared and X-Ray spectroscopy, as well as laminating.
Carver’s entire range of accessories, such as digital gauges and floor stands, has seen the Model C become one of the world’s most customizable and versatile manual presses. Carver has also introduced the Auto C, offering the same advantages as the famous Model C line but with automation.
The Father of the Carver Hydraulic Press Family
With hundreds of units distributed each year, Carver is proud to announce sales in excess of 30,000 Model C presses over the past 110 years globally.
Since it all began in 1912 with the first Model C press, Carver has expanded its range of presses to accommodate almost any conceivable application. From the manually-operated compact, lightweight Mini C to floor-standing 100-ton presses, Carver presses are manufactured with precision and reliability at their heart.
Over the last 110 years, Carver has grown to become the global leader in the development of tailor-made presses and accessories to meet the most demanding applications. To discover more about Carver’s range of precision hydraulic and pneumatic presses, contact a member of the Carver team today.
- Pearson, C. E. The History of the Hydraulic Extrusion Process. Transactions of the Newcomen Society 21, 109–121 (1940).
- Coe, S. D. & Coe, M. D. The True History of Chocolate. (Thames and Hudson, 2007).
- Sun, C. & Grant, D. J. W. Effects of initial particle size on the tableting properties of l-lysine monohydrochloride dihydrate powder. International Journal of Pharmaceutics 215, 221–228 (2001).
- Shiroma, C. & Rodriguez-Saona, L. Application of NIR and MIR spectroscopy in quality control of potato chips. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 22, 596–605 (2009).
- Carver Model C | Catalogue. https://carverpress.com/images/pdfs/Ccatalog.pdf.
This information has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from materials provided by Carver, Inc.
For more information on this source, please visit Carver, Inc.