Carbon/Sulfur Analyzer — ELEMENTRAC CS-d

ELTRA’s ELEMENTRAC CS-d is the only analyzer worldwide to measure carbon and sulfur concentrations in both organic and inorganic samples. For this purpose, the ELEMENTRAC CS-d is fitted with an induction furnace as well as a resistance furnace (ELTRA Dual Furnace Technology), thus encompassing the complete range of carbon and sulfur analysis.

Up to four highly sensitive infrared (IR) cells enable accurate measurement of both low and high carbon and sulfur concentrations in a single analysis. The range of measurement of each cell may be modified to the particular needs of the user to guarantee ideal measurement settings for each application.

The ELEMENTRAC CS-d comes with the comprehensive, easy-to-use ELEMENTS software featuring statistics, reports, groupings, diagnosis tools, and several extra functions.

Application Examples

Ashes, alloys, carbides, copper, cement, ceramics, cast iron, coke, coal, gypsum, glass, iron, limestone, minerals, metals, ores, oil, plant materials, rubber, refractory metals, soils, sand, steel, tobacco, titanium, etc.

Product Advantages

General

  • Robust design allows usage in production control and laboratory
  • Fast, precise, accurate, and dependable carbon and sulfur analysis in organic and inorganic samples
  • 100% flexibility, thanks to combined induction and resistance furnace: ELTRA Dual Furnace (EDF) Technology
  • Up to four separate infrared cells with modifiable measuring ranges
  • Simultaneous carbon and sulfur determination with virtually no sample preparation
  • Gold IR path allows for better cell live time for the examination of acid or halogen-containing samples
  • Low maintenance

Induction Furnace

  • Precise carbon and sulfur analysis in inorganic samples as a result of smart oxygen supply during inductive combustion
  • Modifiable and rampable induction furnace (0%–100%) for improved combustion of all types of inorganic samples (highest temperature over 2,000 °C)
  • Enhanced catalyst reactor allows for more accurate carbon detection
  • Easily accessible heated dust trap enables better sulfur detection
  • Optional automatic vacuum cleaning system guarantees greater measurement precision

Resistance Furnace

  • Temperature of resistance furnace can be modified from 600 °C up to 1,550 °C in steps of 1 °C
  • XXL balcony for sample storage
  • Low blank sample port assures dependable low carbon measurement in the resistance furnace

ELEMENTS Software

  • Extensive analysis and diagnosis tools (supporting data and application export, comment fields, etc.)
  • Single and multipoint calibration
  • LIMS
  • Report Designer

Features

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Measured elements Carbon, sulfur
Samples Organic, inorganic
Furnace alignment Horizontal (resistance furnace) and vertical (induction furnace)
Sample carrier Ceramic boats/crucibles
Field of application Agriculture, chemistry/plastics, coal/power plant, construction materials, engineering/electronics, environment/recycling, geology/mining, glass/ceramics, medicine/pharmaceuticals, steel/metallurgy
Furnaces Induction furnace, above 2,000 °C
Resistance furnace (ceramic tube), adjustable up to 1,550 °C (steps of 1 °C)
Detection method Solid-state infrared absorption
Number of IR cells 1 to 4
Material of IR path Gold
Typical analysis time Induction furnace 40–50 seconds
Resistance furnace 60–120 seconds
Chemicals required Magnesium perchlorate, platinized silica (alternatively copper oxide), sodium hydroxide
Gas required Compressed air (4–6 bar/60–90 psi)
Oxygen 99.5% pure (2–4 bar/30–60 psi)
Power requirements induction furnace 230 V, 50/60 Hz, 16 A fuse
Power requirements resistance furnace 230 V, 50/60 Hz, 20 A fuse
Dimensions (W x H x D) 89 cm x 84 cm x 79 cm
Weight ~200 kg
Required equipment Balance (resolution 0.0001 g), monitor, PC
Optional accessories Autoloader for 36 crucibles, carrier gas purification, HTF-540 pre-heating furnace

 

Function Principle

Operation Carbon/Sulfur Analyzer ELEMENTRAC CS-d

The ELEMENTRAC CS-d is equipped with two different furnaces (induction and resistance) sharing one detection unit comprising up to four separate IR cells. Inorganic samples such as cast iron, steel, and cement are typically processed in the induction furnace of the CS-d. Once the sample is applied to a ceramic crucible, it is logged in the ELEMENTS software with name and weight.

Then, accelerators such as tungsten and iron are incorporated. The ceramic crucible with the accelerator and sample is positioned on the pedestal and the software starts measuring. All additional steps are regulated by the ELEMENTS software, and the measured carbon and/or sulfur result is displayed after approximately 50 seconds. One or multiple results can be transferred to a report or to LIMS.

Organic samples are typically processed in the resistance furnace of the CS-d at a pre-fixed temperature of up to 1,550 °C. The samples (for example, coal) are weighed in ceramic boats without an accelerator. The weight is transfered from the interfaced balance to the PC or can be filled in manually.

The sample is then positioned directly on the balcony before the furnace and the measurement can commence. When a green LED light shows that the analyzer is set for measurement, the ceramic boat with the sample can be placed into the hot furnace using a stick. The standard analysis time varies between 60 and 180 seconds, depending on the sample material.

Measuring Principle Carbon/Sulfur Analyzer ELEMENTRAC CS-d

Irrespective of which furnace is chosen in the ELEMENTRAC CS-d, the carbon and sulfur in the sample form gaseous molecules like CO2 and SO2 while burning. The discharged quantities of CO2 and SO2 are measured in up to four-element selective infrared cells. Typically, two IR cells are used for measuring a single gas (CO2 or SO2) to confirm that both very low and very high concentrations are examined correctly and precisely.

When the induction furnace is used, the carrier gas (oxygen) and the combustion products (CO2, traces of CO, and SO2) are first guided through a metallic filter to eliminate all solid particles. Later, a tube packed with magnesium perchlorate eliminates traces of water. The dried combustion gas is then transferred to two infrared cells for sulfur (SO2) measurement.

Subsequently, a heated catalyst (typically platinized silica) oxidizes the traces of carbon monoxide (CO) to CO2 and the SO2 molecules to SO3. The SO3 gas is captured by cellulose and the CO2 is measured in up to two element-selective IR cells. Lastly, the combustion gas is guided to the exhaust and the ELEMENTS software measures the resulting carbon and sulfur concentrations.

While the induction furnace of the ELEMENTRAC CS-d is ideal for examining inorganic samples such as cast iron, steel, and ceramics, the resistance furnace is employed for combustion of organic samples such as coke, coal, or soil.

When a coal sample is burned at temperatures of approximately 1350 °C, CO2 and SO2 are discharged but typically no CO is produced. The resistance furnace’s combustion gases initially pass a ceramic filter for absorption of particles, followed by a glass tube with magnesium perchlorate.

Then, the dried combustion gases pass via the same route as those from the induction furnace. Typically, the catalyst furnace is turned off when the resistance furnace is in use, as oxidation of CO is not necessary.

However, the risk of incomplete combustion and formation of CO increases at lower temperatures (~600 °C); in such scenarios, the catalyst furnace may be turned on.

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