The XRF spectroscopy is widely used for the qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis of environmental, geological, biological, industrial and other samples. Compared to other competetitive techniques, such as Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Inductively Coupled Plasma Spectroscopy (ICPS) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA), XRF has the advantage of being non-destructive, multi-elemental, fast and cost-effective. Furthermore, it provides a fairly uniform detection limit across a large portion of the Periodic Table and is applicable to a wide range of concentrations, from a 100% to few parts per million (ppm). Its main disadvantage is that analyses are generally restricted to elements heavier than fluorine.
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