Improved Material Properties of Single Fibers Using Dynamic Testing

In the highly competitive fiber industry, innovation is the key for new and improved products. Manufactured fibers have found use in a myriad of applications, including industrial belts, filters, building construction, energy, aeronautics, medicine, home furnishings, and modern apparel.

Today's advanced composite materials are based on fibers, and are serving as alternatives to conventional materials in applications, ranging from super-absorbent diapers to artificial organs and construction materials for automobiles, aircraft and space stations.

Demand for Improved Material Properties

Customer requirement for products having greater durability and higher load bearing capabilities showed the way to conduct a study on the physical properties of individual fibers at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The concept of the research is that improving individual fibers will lead to improved finished products. The properties measured in this analysis will serve as the basis for the development of new and improved fibers and fiber processing methods.

Instrumentation

In this study, the ElectroForce 3220 test instrument from Bose Corporation was selected for testing a series of nylon fibers that have a diameter range of 5-10µm due to its superior sensitivity and precision for resolving displacements and forces. A combination of the standard system displacement transducer and a 250-gram force transducer was employed in this study to obtain optimal capacity and resolution.

Experimental Procedure and Results

Bonding of a single fiber to each sample card was performed for alignment and for preventing the fiber from getting damaged during handling. The paper frame was cut just before testing after the installation of the specimen. Tension to failure was the initial test.

Tensile test data

Figure 1. Tensile test data

The repeatability of the breaking force of 60g was determined using multiple samples. The ringing in the data caused by fiber pull-out was reduced by means of optimized specimen preparation and fixturing. The test results are shown in Figures 2 and 3.

Tensile test data

Figure 2. Tensile test data

Peak valley data force sample 8 nylon fiber

Figure 3. Peak valley data force sample 8 nylon fiber

Next was a cyclic fatigue test performed at 10Hz between 6 and 50g. A sophisticated control technique was used to obtain optimized force control. The test results are shown in Figure 4.

Cycle 1500-1505

Figure 4. Cycle 1500-1505

Conclusion

This chain of tests demonstrates the suitability of the ElectroForce 3220 instrument equipped with sophisticated WinTest control features in the determination of tensile and fatigue properties of single fibers. This capability will facilitate the development of materials with optimized properties for a myriad of applications.

This information has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from materials provided by TA Instruments.

For more information on this source, please visit TA Instruments.

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