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Stainless Steel - Grade 410 (UNS S41000)

Chemical Formula

Fe, <0.15% C, 11.5-13.5% Cr, >0.75% Ni, <1.0% Mn, <1.0% Si, <0.04% P, <0.03% S

Topics Covered

Introduction
Key Properties
    Composition
    Mechanical Properties
    Physical Properties
    Grade Specification Comparison
    Possible Alternative Grades
Corrosion Resistance
Heat Resistance
Heat Treatment
Welding
Machining
Applications

Introduction

Grade 410 stainless steels are general-purpose martensitic stainless steels containing 11.5% chromium, which provide good corrosion resistance properties. However, the corrosion resistance of grade 410 steels can be further enhanced by a series of processes such as hardening, tempering and polishing. Quenching and tempering can harden grade 410 steels. They are generally used for applications involving mild corrosion, heat resistance and high strength.

Martensitic stainless steels are fabricated using techniques that require final heat treatment. These grades are less resistant to corrosion when compared to that of austenitic grades. Their operating temperatures are often affected by their loss of strength at high temperatures, due to over-tempering and loss of ductility at sub-zero temperatures.

Key Properties

The properties displayed below are applicable to bar products of ASTM A276. Other products such as forgings, wire and plate may not have similar properties.

Composition

The compositional ranges of grade 410 stainless steels are displayed below.

Table 1 - Composition ranges of grade 410 stainless steels

Grade   C Mn Si P S Cr Ni
410 min.
max.
-
0.15
-
1
-
1
-
0.04
-
0.03
11.5
13.5
0.75

 

Mechanical Properties

The typical mechanical properties of grade 410 stainless steels are listed in the following table:

Table 2 - Mechanical properties of grade 410 stainless steels

Tempering Temperature (°C) Tensile Strength (MPa) Yield Strength 0.2% Proof (MPa) Elongation (% in 50 mm) Hardness Brinell (HB) Impact Charpy V (J)
Annealed * 480 min 275 min 16 min - -
204 1475 1005 11 400 30
316 1470 961 18 400 36
427 1340 920 18.5 405 #
538 985 730 16 321 #
593 870 675 20 255 39
650 300 270 29.5 225 80

 

* Annealed properties of cold finished bar, which pertain to Condition A of ASTM A276.
# Tempering of grade 410 steels should be avoided at temperatures of 425-600 °C, owing to associated low impact resistance.

Physical Properties

The physical properties of grade 410 stainless steels in the annealed condition are tabulated below:

Table 3 - Physical properties of annealed grade 410 stainless steels

Grade Density (kg/m3) Elastic Modulus (GPa) Mean Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (μm/m/°C) Thermal Conductivity (W/m.K) Specific Heat 0-100 °C (J/kg.K) Electrical Resistivity (nΩ.m)
0-100 °C 0-315 °C 0-538 °C at 100 °C at 500 °C
410 7800 200 9.9 11 11.5 24.9 28.7 460 570

 

Grade Specification Comparison

Grade comparisons of 410 stainless steels are outlined in the following table:

Table 4 - Grade specifications of 410 grade stainless steels

Grade UNS No Old British Euronorm Swedish SS Japanese JIS
BS En No Name
410 S41000 410S21 56A 1.4006 X12Cr13 2302 SUS 410

 

Possible Alternative Grades

The table below provides the suitable alternative grades to 410 stainless steels:

Table 5 - Possible alternative grades to 410 grade stainless steels

Grade Reasons for choosing the grade
416 High machinability is required, and the lower corrosion resistance of 416 is acceptable.
420 A higher hardened strength or hardness than can be obtained from 410 is needed.
440C A higher hardened strength or hardness than can be obtained even from 420 is needed.

 

Corrosion Resistance

Grade 410 stainless steels are resistant to hot gases, steam, food, mild acids and alkalies, fresh water and dry air. These steels obtain maximum corrosion and heat resistance through hardening. However, grade 410 steels are less corrosion resistant than austenitic grades and grade 430 ferritic alloys containing 17% chromium. Smooth surface finish offers improved performance of steels.

Heat Resistance

Grade 410 steels have good scaling resistance at temperatures of up to 650 °C. However, the mechanical properties of the material will tend to reduce at temperatures ranging from 400 to 580 °C.

Heat Treatment

Annealing - Grade 410 steels can be fully annealed at temperatures from 815 to 900 °C, followed by slow furnace cooling and air-cooling. Process annealing of grade 410 steels can be carried out at temperatures ranging from 650 to 760 °C and air-cooled.

Hardening – Hardening of grade 410 steels can be performed at 925 to 1010 °C, followed by air and oil quenching. Heavy sections of grade 410 need to be oil quenched. Tempering, to enhance the mechanical properties and hardness of grade 410 steels, follows this process. It is not recommended to perform tempering at temperatures from 400 to 580 °C.

Welding

Grade 410 steels can be welded using all conventional welding techniques, but the materials should pre-heated at 150 to 260 °C followed by post-weld annealing treatment, to mitigate cracking. Grade 410 welding rods are recommended for tempering and post-hardening. In the "as welded" conditions, grade 309 filler rods can be used to achieve a ductile joint.

According to AS 1554.6 standards, grade 309 electrodes or rods are preferred for welding 410 steels.

Machining

Grade 410 steels can be easily machined in highly tempered or annealed conditions. However, it is hard to machine grade 410 steels if they are hardened above 30HRC. Free machining grade 416 is the best alternative.

Applications

Grade 410 stainless steels find applications in the following:

  • Bolts, screws, bushings and nuts
  • Petroleum fractionating structures
  • Shafts, pumps and valves
  • Mine ladder rungs
  • Gas turbines

 

Comments

  1. Sandeep Saxena Sandeep Saxena India says:

    Is SS 410 magnetic?

    • John Kocher John Kocher United States says:

      Yes!

      • Alireza Ansari Alireza Ansari Iran says:

        Dear Sir,
        We are gasket manufacture in IRAN,looking for sus410 annel for made Cylinder head gasket
        grommet,appreciate if you advise us the cheapest staniless steel fro grommet,now we are using tinplate for grommet.
        B.Regards A.R.Ansari
        [email protected]

  2. Ranjit Singh Ranjit Singh India says:

    What is Impact Value of SS 410?

    • Kris Walker Kris Walker AZoNetwork Team Member says:

      Hi Ranjit,

      Thanks for your question. The Charpy impact values for SS410 are stated in Table 2 - Mechanical properties of grade 410 stainless steels, column 6.

      Many Thanks,

      Kris

  3. Kent Neal Kent Neal United States says:

    What tool geometry works best for 410SS machining for both Milling and turning??

  4. P Jayakumar P Jayakumar India says:

    what will be the hardness of SS410 in annealed condition

  5. Amal Banerjee Amal Banerjee India says:

    Are SS-410 material rust free ? Or it can  grab rust if keep in the poen place ? Please help !!!

    • divin varghese divin varghese India says:

      yes it is because it has good corrosion resistance and depends on property and composition of iron,mn,cu,cr used

  6. Saleem Mughal Saleem Mughal Islamic Republic of Pakistan says:

    I need to know which alloy is better in corrosion resistance. SS304 or SS410.

    • Big fish Big fish India says:

      304 is offer better corrosion resistance

  7. albert orozco albert orozco Saudi Arabia says:

    WHAT IS THE EQUIVALENT STAINLESS OF 410SS?

    • Vishal Mehta Vishal Mehta India says:

      its stainless steel 410s

  8. Ravindra Mahajan Ravindra Mahajan India says:

    What is the tolerance for chemical values.?

  9. Jaimin Patel Jaimin Patel India says:

    Is there is a limit for maximum elongation value in % for SS 410T material ?

  10. Pritish Dugad Pritish Dugad India says:

    Which is superior grade of steel SS 304 AND SS 410?

  11. onkar vaidya onkar vaidya India says:

    Which material is better for rotor of disc brake ,ss420 or ss410?

    • sammy doshi sammy doshi India says:

      you  can use 410db which are meant for disc brakes
      you can whatsapp me 7045501954
      i can provide you all the materials in 410,410s,410db as well as 420

  12. Elvin Villanueva Escanuela Elvin Villanueva Escanuela Philippines says:

    Material having a 410 BHN is equivalent to what  RC?.

  13. Abusubait Trading Est Abusubait Trading Est Saudi Arabia says:

    WHAT IS THE EQUILLENT STAINLESS STEEL OF SS 410

  14. Winston Krause Winston Krause United States says:

    Is there anything which could cause a part which is heat treated stainless steel to lose it's hardness in a non uniform manner? We have a pulper bedplate which has been heat treated and failed prematurely. We suspected glass or sand in the burnish, but in the areas where there were perforations post failure hardness test have revealed lower hardness readings but only on one side of the plate. Could a chemical attack or some other factor cause a localized softening of the 410?

    • atul Sc atul Sc India says:

      Hi Winston Krause,
           we have helped a customer with similar problems using our coating called Boronizing if you would like we would help you solve your problem.
      please feel free to contact us [email protected]

      Regards,
      S.C. Atul

  15. Winston Krause Winston Krause United States says:

    ...and yes I wasz unclear in the initial post the part is made from 100% heat treated 410 stainless steel with stellite wear strips welded in various locations on the plate. We use a Stoody filler material to weld the strips to the 410

  16. jitendra vora jitendra vora India says:

    specification for ss 410 class IV material?

  17. Anil Malhotra Anil Malhotra India says:

    Are there any chances of change. In ultrasonic. Properties after heat treamment of hot rolled bars.

  18. João Rodrigues João Rodrigues Portugal says:

    Is it suitable for press plates like in laminate production or hardboard production?
    Thanks.

  19. sandeep baniya sandeep baniya India says:

    which material is used for shaft en8 or ss410

  20. sandeep baniya sandeep baniya India says:

    which material is used for shaft en8 or ss410

  21. Vaibhav Wakchaure Vaibhav Wakchaure India says:

    We are currently using 420 J2 for making scissors & knives for which we are looking for generic alternative material. So, can 410 is good option...???

  22. Gene Joy Gene Joy Singapore says:

    does a second tempering consider as stress relieve

  23. harshwardhan goel harshwardhan goel India says:

    Can someone please advise quench severity factor of AISI 410, AISI 4140, AISI 8630, AISI 4340 Material grades?

  24. prabhakaran muthusamy prabhakaran muthusamy India says:

    Sir,
    Is there any impact due to less percentage of chromium content(10 to 12%)?

  25. Jaisim Jaisim Jaisim Jaisim India says:

    can SS grade 410 L plated with hard chrome? if Yes suggest a good method to do it.

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of AZoM.com.

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