Gelation Times And Strength In Foods Using A Bohlin Rheometer To Determine Structure Growth

The gelation time of foods containing a gel can be dramatically affected by other ingredients in the formulation. The gelant dosing can be adjusted to maintain the same gelling time, despite formulation changes.

Using Shear Viscometry To Measure Structure Build Up

Steady shear viscometry can be used to measure the structure building, although the shearing action inherently retards the structure growth. Using a Bohlin rheometer, it is possible to apply small oscillations to the sample and monitor the structure build-up without hindering the process.

In this experiment, the sample is pre-sheared initially to give a common starting point for all samples. As no gelation has taken place at this stage, the results are not affected.

Plot of gelation time and strength showing the gel point where the elastic and viscous moduli cross over.

Figure 1. Plot of gelation time and strength showing the gel point where the elastic and viscous moduli cross over.

Temperature Induced Carrageenan Gelation

Carrageenan gelation is temperature induced, so the sample sets-up when the temperature is ramped down. The temperature at which the gelation occurs will depend on the ionic and gelant concentrations of the mixture as well as the pH.

Interpretation Of Results

Gel Point

In the results shown in figure 1, the sample was initially a thin liquid and the viscous modulus was dominant over the elastic modulus. The crossover point of the elastic and viscous moduli indicates when the sample has reached a ‘gel point’.

Flow Characteristics

Thereafter, the structure becomes predominantly elastic and the sample will not flow. Formulations with an earlier crossover would show less flow before gelation. If the test is run for long enough, the moduli will reach a plateau where it has fully reacted.

Conclusion

A Bohlin rheometer can be used to accurately quantify the gelation times of foods. The formulation can be optimised with regard to gelant dosing in the minimum of time.

Measurement Conditions

Samples

Carrageenan gels, Xanthan gums or similar

Geometry

60mm Parallel plate system. Stainless steel/titanium

Temperature

80 - 20ºC, ramp down at 3ºC / minute, hold at 20ºC

Shear rate

100s-1

Shear time

10 seconds

Equilibrium time

1 second

Single Frequency Oscillation

 

Strain

0.005

Frequency

1Hz

Delay time

1 Second

Wait time

0 Seconds

This information has been sourced, reviewed and adapted from materials provided by Malvern Panalytical.

For more information on this source, please visit Malvern Panalytical.

Citations

Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

  • APA

    Malvern Panalytical. (2019, September 03). Gelation Times And Strength In Foods Using A Bohlin Rheometer To Determine Structure Growth. AZoM. Retrieved on December 06, 2019 from https://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=2842.

  • MLA

    Malvern Panalytical. "Gelation Times And Strength In Foods Using A Bohlin Rheometer To Determine Structure Growth". AZoM. 06 December 2019. <https://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=2842>.

  • Chicago

    Malvern Panalytical. "Gelation Times And Strength In Foods Using A Bohlin Rheometer To Determine Structure Growth". AZoM. https://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=2842. (accessed December 06, 2019).

  • Harvard

    Malvern Panalytical. 2019. Gelation Times And Strength In Foods Using A Bohlin Rheometer To Determine Structure Growth. AZoM, viewed 06 December 2019, https://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=2842.

Ask A Question

Do you have a question you'd like to ask regarding this article?

Leave your feedback
Submit