Stainless Steel – Grade 405 (UNS S40500)

Topics Covered

Introduction
Chemical Composition
Physical Properties
Mechanical Properties
Thermal Properties
Other Designations
Fabrication and Heat Treatment
Annealing
Welding
Forging
Forming
Machinability
Hardening
Applications

Introduction

Stainless steels are known as high-alloy steels. These steels are available in four groups that include martensitic, austenitic, ferritic and precipitation-hardened steels. These groups are formed based on the crystalline structure of stainless steels.

Stainless steels contain larger amounts of chromium in comparison with other steels and thus have good corrosion resistance. Most of the stainless steels contain about 10% of chromium.

The chromium content in grade 405 stainless steel is 12%. The following datasheet provides an overview of grade 405 stainless steel.

Chemical Composition

The chemical composition of grade 405 stainless steel is outlined in the following table.

Element Content (%)
Iron, Fe 85
Chromium, Cr 13
Manganese, Mn 1.0
Silicon, Si 1.0
Aluminum, Al 0.2
Carbon, C 0.080
Phosphorous, P 0.040
Sulfur, S 0.030

Physical Properties

The following table shows the physical properties of grade 405 stainless steel.

Properties Metric Imperial
Density 7.80 g/cm3 0.282 lb/in³

Mechanical Properties

The mechanical properties of grade 405 annealed stainless steel are displayed in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial
Tensile strength 448 MPa 65000 psi
Yield strength (@strain 0.200 %/) 276 MPa 40000 psi
Elastic modulus 200 GPa 29007 ksi
Poisson's ratio 0.27-0.30 0.27-0.30
Elongation at break (in 50 mm) 25.00% 25.00%
Izod Impact (@20°C/68°F) 41.0 J 30.2 ft-lb
Hardness, Brinell (converted from Rockwell B hardness) 131 131
Hardness, Knoop (converted from Rockwell B hardness) 146 146
Hardness, Rockwell B 75 75
Hardness, Vickers (converted from Rockwell B hardness) 140 140

Thermal Properties

The thermal properties of grade 405 stainless steel are given in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial
Thermal expansion co-efficient (@0-100°C/32-212°F) 10.8 µm/m°C 6.00 µin/in°F
Thermal conductivity (@0-100°C/32-212°F) 27.0 W/mK 187 BTU in/hr.ft².°F

Other Designations

Equivalent materials to grade 405 stainless steel are given in the table below.

AISI 405 ASTM A176 ASTM A240 ASTM A268 ASTM A276
ASTM A473 ASTM A479 ASTM A511 ASTM A580 ASME SA240
DIN 1.4002 QQ S763 ASME SA268 ASME SA479 ASTM A314
ASTM A473 ASTM A479 ASTM A511 SAE 51405 FED QQ-S-763
MIL SPEC MIL.S-862 SAE J405 (51405)

Fabrication and Heat Treatment

Annealing

Grade 405 stainless steel is soaked at 649-760°C (1200-1400°F) and then cooled in air.

Welding

Shielded fusion and resistance methods are recommended for welding grade 405 stainless steel. Oxyacetylene welding is not suitable for this stainless steel grade. Hardening of grade 405 stainless steel is controlled by the use of 405 Cb electrodes that contain columbium. Ductility of 405 stainless steel is maximized by post weld annealing.

Forging

Grade 405 stainless steel is soaked at 817-871°C (1500-1600°F) and the temperature is then increased to 1038-1121°C (1900-2050°F). Forging below 816°C (1500°F) is not recommended for this stainless steel grade. Forging is followed by air cooling and finally annealing.

Forming

Usage of forming techniques enable grade 405 stainless steel to be easily spun, drawn and formed.

Machinability

Standard methods are used to carry out the machiniability process for grade 405 stainless steel.

Hardening

Grade 405 stainless steel can be hardened by soaking at 982-1010°C (1800-1850°F) and then oil quenched.

Applications

Grade 405 stainless steel is used in quenching racks, annealing boxes, partitions, steam nozzles and various other fabrications that cannot be annealed after welding.

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