Posted in | Plastics and Polymers

Linkam Report on Application of CSS450 Stage for Polymer Research

Market leaders in temperature controlled microscopy, Linkam Scientific Instruments report on the use of their popular CSS450 stage for polymer research at the New University of Lisbon, Portugal.

Liquid-crystalline polymers (LCPs) are materials with exceptionally useful mechanical properties compared with ordinary industrial polymers. LCPs are not frequently used in industry due to their prohibitive production costs, but blending an LCP with a relatively common polymer is one way to utilize them at a reduced cost. Only blends that fibrillate in situ during processing, and when the fibrils maintain a solid state, do they demonstrate these superior properties.

Associated with the Department of Materials Science, University of Lisbon, CENIMAT (a national scientific research centre in Portugal) is devoted to developing radical new approaches in the areas of structural, electronic and optoelectronic, polymeric and mesomorphic, dielectric and electroactive materials.

Professor Maria Teresa Cidade and her colleagues are looking at the fibrillation mechanisms within two blends of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) with a liquid crystalline polymer, Rodrun LC3000 (10 and 25 wt % LCP content). PET is often used within consumable packaging. The scientists' initial studies of the blends using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that the 10wt% blend had no fibrils, yet the 25wt% blend did have some evidence of fibrillation. To better understand the mechanical behaviour of the polymer blends, the scientists used the Linkam CSS450 stage to study the rheo-optical properties.

Professor Cidade commented "the Linkam CSS 450 Shearing System allows us to follow the morphology/texture of different kind of fluids such as liquid crystals, emulsions and composites." Using the CSS450, the structural dynamics of complex fluids can be directly observed using a standard optical microscope while under precisely controlled temperature and shear modes. The microstructure evolution of complex fluids can be studied in great detail for many physical processes.

This allows the correlation of the micro structural dynamics with rheological data to gain insight into the rheology of complex fluids. The images captured can also be used to validate numerical results from computer simulations and experimental data from indirect measurements such as using scattering techniques.

Samples were observed for droplet size and deformation under varying shear rates It was shown that the blend with the lower LCP content had minimal relaxation times which did not increase exponentially for higher shear rates. The blend with the higher LCP content showed increasing relaxation times in parallel with the increase of shear rate. Professor Cidade explained, "We found that the droplet shape relaxation time (the time the deformed droplet takes to regain its spherical form after cessation of flow) allowed for the explanation of the morphological observations."

liquid crystal polymer blend on the CSS450 stage – samples can be subjected to varying shear rates to study the optical-rheological properties. Image credits: Linkam Scientific Instruments.

About Linkam Scientific Instruments

Linkam develops and manufactures a broad range of heating and freezing stages for both OEM and end users to visualize and explore materials properties. Used in conjunction with light microscopes and other forms of spectroscopy, Linkam stages are found in thousands of laboratories worldwide with the most successful microscope heating stage, the THMS600, selling over 4,000 units alone. Linkam is the market leader in temperature controlled microscopy.


Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

  • APA

    Linkam Scientific Instruments. (2019, February 09). Linkam Report on Application of CSS450 Stage for Polymer Research. AZoM. Retrieved on January 21, 2021 from

  • MLA

    Linkam Scientific Instruments. "Linkam Report on Application of CSS450 Stage for Polymer Research". AZoM. 21 January 2021. <>.

  • Chicago

    Linkam Scientific Instruments. "Linkam Report on Application of CSS450 Stage for Polymer Research". AZoM. (accessed January 21, 2021).

  • Harvard

    Linkam Scientific Instruments. 2019. Linkam Report on Application of CSS450 Stage for Polymer Research. AZoM, viewed 21 January 2021,

Tell Us What You Think

Do you have a review, update or anything you would like to add to this news story?

Leave your feedback