Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) – The Fundamentals, Industrial Applications and Benefits


Introduction to HIP
How Does HIP Work?
HIP In Manufacturing
Applications and Products of HIP
Benefits of HIP

Introduction to HIP

Hot Isostatic Pressing is a manufacturing technique designed to increase the density of materials by reducing or eliminating their porosity or microporosity thus creating fully dense ‘wrought’ materials. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) is a process employed to enhance or create materials or products with different mechanical properties by improving density, composition and dynamic strength.

How Does HIP Work?

The definition of ‘isostatic’ (subjected to equal pressure from every side) gives us a fundamental clue to the basic mechanics of HIP.

During Hot Isostatic Presing, pressure is applied to a material uniformly from all directions through an inert gas (such as Argon) in a pressurized vessel. Throughout the process heat is applied to the containment chamber to increase this pressure over time. It is important to note that the temperature employed is typically below the melting point of the material being pressed.

An inert gas is used to ensure that no chemical reaction occurs with the material during the process. The application of both heat and pressure simultaneously on all surfaces of a material helps to eliminate any small gaps (pores) in the material and hence increases density and uniform composition.

HIPs come in many forms, shapes and sizes and can operate at a range of temperatures and pressures. The following video is a great introduction to HIP:

Introduction to HIP Video
Run Time – 7:31mins

Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP)


HIP can be used to press a range of materials from Ceramics and Aluminium castings to Nickel based ‘super-alloys’ for all sorts of applications.

HIP in Manufacturing

Typical materials processed by HIP could be:

  • Ceramics
  • Metal Powder Castings
  • Plastics
  • Hardmetals
  • Low Carbon Steels
  • Stainless Steels
  • Nickel-based Super-alloys
  • Cobalt-based alloys
  • Glass
  • Tungsten Carbide

Applications and Products of HIP

HIP is widely used during the manufacture of high integrity and precise components for a diverse range of applications and industries from Aerospace and Medicine to Automotive.

  • Composites
  • Medical Implants
  • Bi-metal materials
  • Sintering (Powder metallurgy)
  • Coatings
  • Ceramic parts
  • Metal Matrix Composites
  • Super-Alloy Castings
  • Titanium Castings
  • Gas Turbine Components
  • Pumps
  • Valves
  • Pistons
  • Cutting Tools
  • Plastic and food extrusion technology
  • Heat Treatment
  • Diffusion Bonding
  • Redensification
  • HIP Brazing

Benefits of HIP

HIP allows us to squeeze the impurities (pores) out of materials in order to improve a number of their material characteristics. For example, in sintering (powder metallurgy) the process compresses a volume of metal powder at such high pressures and temperatures, that through a combination of deformation, creep and diffusion bonding you actually create a product with an homogenous annealed microstructure (compact solid) with minimal or no impurities in the material.

HIP gives the manufacturer and ultimate user a number of unique benefits:

  • Highest Achievable Density
  • Higher Static Strength
  • No segregation or grain growth during manufacture
  • Higher Dynamic / yield and tensile strength
  • Homogeneous annealed microstructure
  • Maximum abrasion resistance
  • Higher Corrosion resistance
  • Reduced porosity
  • Improved fatigue resistance
  • Reduction of Microshrinkage of castings
  • Near-Net shaped parts



Please use one of the following formats to cite this article in your essay, paper or report:

  • APA

    Gilbert, Nick. (2017, August 01). Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) – The Fundamentals, Industrial Applications and Benefits. AZoM. Retrieved on June 22, 2024 from

  • MLA

    Gilbert, Nick. "Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) – The Fundamentals, Industrial Applications and Benefits". AZoM. 22 June 2024. <>.

  • Chicago

    Gilbert, Nick. "Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) – The Fundamentals, Industrial Applications and Benefits". AZoM. (accessed June 22, 2024).

  • Harvard

    Gilbert, Nick. 2017. Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP) – The Fundamentals, Industrial Applications and Benefits. AZoM, viewed 22 June 2024,

Tell Us What You Think

Do you have a review, update or anything you would like to add to this article?

Leave your feedback
Your comment type

While we only use edited and approved content for Azthena answers, it may on occasions provide incorrect responses. Please confirm any data provided with the related suppliers or authors. We do not provide medical advice, if you search for medical information you must always consult a medical professional before acting on any information provided.

Your questions, but not your email details will be shared with OpenAI and retained for 30 days in accordance with their privacy principles.

Please do not ask questions that use sensitive or confidential information.

Read the full Terms & Conditions.