Vanadium - Mechanical Properties And Material Applications

Topics Covered

Introduction
Physical Properties
Mechanical Properties
Thermal Properties
Fabrication and Heat Treatment
     Machinability
     Forming
     Welding
     Forging
     Cold Working
     Annealing
Applications

Introduction

In 1801, vanadium was discovered by Andres Manuel del Rio. It has good corrosion resistance, high strength at high temperature, and low density. It is found in different kinds of mill forms. It has high hardness when compared to most of the steels and metals. It has high resistance to alkalis, hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. At a temperature of about 660°C, vanadium can be easily oxidized in air. It is usually found in carbon containing deposits that include coal, crude oil, tar sands, and oil shale.

The following sections give an overview of vanadium.

Physical Properties

The physical properties of vanadium are displayed in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial
Density 6.11 g/cm³ 0.221 lb/in³
Melting point 1735°C 3155°F

Mechanical Properties

The mechanical properties of vanadium are outlined in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial
Tensile strength 800 MPa 116000 psi
Yield strength 776 MPa 113000 psi
Elastic modulus 125.5 GPa 18200 ksi
Poisson's ratio 0.36 0.36
Elongation at break (in 50 mm) 2% 2%
Hardness, Brinell (converted from Vickers. (3000 kg load)) 165 165
Hardness, Rockwell A (converted from Vickers) 52 52
Hardness, Rockwell B 100 100
Hardness, Vickers 170 170

Thermal Properties

The thermal properties of vanadium are highlighted in the following table.

Thermal Properties Metric Imperial
Thermal expansion co-efficient (@20-100°C/68-212°F) 8.33 µm/m°C 4.63 µin/in°F
Thermal conductivity 31 W/mK 215 BTU in/hr.ft².°F

Fabrication and Heat Treatment

Machinability

Vanadium is successfully machined using high speed and carbide tooling.

Forming

At room temperature, vanadium can be easily formed. It has good forming properties.

Welding

Vanadium can be welded using TIG welding method if argon or helium is covered at front and back of a work piece. It should be prevented from being exposed outside because it can react with oxygen and nitrogen gases.

Forging

Forging of vanadium is done at room temperature due to its good low temperature ductility.

Cold Working

At room temperature, vanadium can be spun, swaged, blanked, and cold forged.

Annealing

Vanadium is annealed by recrystallizing at 888°C (1630°F).

Applications

Vanadium is mainly applied in parts having low density, good low temperature ductility, high strength at high temperatures, and good corrosion resistance in bad environments. It also finds applications in the following areas:

  • Axles
  • Crankshafts
  • Bicycle frames
  • Gears
  • Nuclear reactors
  • High speed air-frames
  • Jet engines

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