Topics CoveredIntroductionPhysical PropertiesMechanical PropertiesThermal PropertiesFabrication and Heat Treatment Machinability Forming Welding Forging Cold Working AnnealingApplications
In 1801, vanadium was discovered by Andres Manuel del Rio. It has good corrosion resistance, high strength at high temperature, and low density. It is found in different kinds of mill forms. It has high hardness when compared to most of the steels and metals. It has high resistance to alkalis, hydrochloric and sulfuric acids. At a temperature of about 660°C, vanadium can be easily oxidized in air. It is usually found in carbon containing deposits that include coal, crude oil, tar sands, and oil shale.
The following sections give an overview of vanadium.
The physical properties of vanadium are displayed in the following table.
The mechanical properties of vanadium are outlined in the following table.
|Elongation at break (in 50 mm)
|Hardness, Brinell (converted from Vickers. (3000 kg load))
|Hardness, Rockwell A (converted from Vickers)
|Hardness, Rockwell B
The thermal properties of vanadium are highlighted in the following table.
|Thermal expansion co-efficient (@20-100°C/68-212°F)
||215 BTU in/hr.ft².°F|
Fabrication and Heat Treatment
Vanadium is successfully machined using high speed and carbide tooling.
At room temperature, vanadium can be easily formed. It has good forming properties.
Vanadium can be welded using TIG welding method if argon or helium is covered at front and back of a work piece. It should be prevented from being exposed outside because it can react with oxygen and nitrogen gases.
Forging of vanadium is done at room temperature due to its good low temperature ductility.
At room temperature, vanadium can be spun, swaged, blanked, and cold forged.
Vanadium is annealed by recrystallizing at 888°C (1630°F).
Vanadium is mainly applied in parts having low density, good low temperature ductility, high strength at high temperatures, and good corrosion resistance in bad environments. It also finds applications in the following areas:
- Bicycle frames
- Nuclear reactors
- High speed air-frames
- Jet engines