Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Semiconductors


Zinc oxide is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula ZnO. It occurs as a white powder that is nearly insoluble in water. It crystallizes in two main forms, hexagonal wurtzite and cubic zincblende. The wurtzite structure is more stable that the zinc blende structure. It is a wide-bandgap semiconductor of the II-VI semiconductor group.


Zinc oxide finds applications in the following:

  • It is used for preventing corrosion in nuclear reactors
  • It is used as a pigment in paint
  • Coatings
  • Food additive
  • Cigarette filters
  • Medicine
  • Ceramic industry
  • Rubber manufacture.

Chemical Properties

The chemical properties of zinc oxide are provided in the table below:

Chemical Properties
Chemical Formula ZnO
Molecular Weight 81.39
CAS No. 1314-13-2
Group Zinc – 12
Oxygen - 16
Crystal Structure Hexagonal
Lattice Constant a = 3.2495 Å
c = 5.2069 Å

Electrical Properties

The electrical properties of zinc oxide are provided in the table below:

Electrical Properties
Dielectric Constant 8.5
Band Gap 3.4 eV
Intrinsic carrier concentration < 106 cm3
Electron Mobility 200 cm2/Vs
Hole Mobility 180 cm2/Vs

Thermal, Mechanical and Optical Properties

The thermal, mechanical and optical properties of zinc oxide are provided in the tables below:

Thermal Properties
Heat of Fusion 642.6 J/g
Heat of Formation -350 kJ/mol
Thermal Conductivity 60 W/mK
Mechanical Properties
Density 5.66 g/cm3
Melting Point 1975°C
Mohs Hardness 4
Optical Properties
Refractive Index 2.013

Safety Information

Safety Information
GHS Hazard Statements H410 - Very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects
Safety Precautions P273 - Avoid release to the environment.
P391 - Collect spillage
P501 - Dispose of contents/ container to an approved waste disposal plant


  1. ramya ediga ramya ediga India says:

    what is coupling matrix and elasticity matrix for zno

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