Titanium (Ti) - The Different Properties and Applications

Topics Covered

Introduction
Chemical Properties
Physical Properties
Mechanical Properties
Thermal Properties
Applications

Introduction

Titanium is a transition metal with a white-silvery metallic appearance. It is a lustrous, strong metal that exhibits good resistance to atmospheric corrosion. The atomic number of titanium is 22 and it belongs to the d-block, period 4, group 4 of the periodic table. Pure titanium is insoluble in water but soluble in concentrated acids.

Titanium is the ninth most abundant metal available on earth’s crust; it is present in most igneous rocks and their sediments. Some of the minerals of titanium are illemenite, rutile, brookite, titanite and anatase. These minerals are primarily distributed in West Australia, Canada, Norway and Ukraine. It is low in toxicity, but the powder form of titanium is an explosion hazard.

Chemical Properties

The chemical properties of titanium are provided in the table below:

Chemical Data
CAS number 7440-32-6
Thermal neutron cross section 5.6 barns/atom
Electrode potential 0.20 V
Ionic radius 0.680 Å
Electro negativity 1.54
X-ray absorption edge 2.497 Å
Electrochemical equivalent 0.4468 g/A/h

Physical Properties

The following table discusses the physical properties of titanium.

Properties Metric Imperial
Density 4.50 g/cm3 0.163 lb/in3
Melting point 1650-1670 °C 3000-3040 °F
Boiling point 3287 °C 5949 °F

Mechanical Properties

The mechanical properties of titanium are tabulated below.

Properties Metric Imperial
Tensile strength 220 MPa 31900 psi
Modulus of elasticity 116 GPa 16800 ksi
Shear modulus 43.0 GPa 6240 ksi
Hardness, Brinell 70 70
Hardness, Vickers 60 60
Elongation at Break 54% 54%
Poissons Ratio 0.34 0.34

Thermal Properties

The thermal properties of titanium are tabulated below.

Properties Metric Imperial
Thermal expansion co-efficient (@20-100°C/68-212°F) 8.90 µm/m°C 4.94 µin/in°F
Thermal conductivity 17 W/mK 118 BTU in/hr.ft².°F

Applications

The following are the application areas of titanium:

  • Pigments, additives and coatings
  • Aerospace and marine
  • Industrial
  • Consumer and architecture
  • Jewellery
  • Medical
  • Nuclear waste storage

Titanium compounds are used as paints, rubber, paper, bleaching and opacifying agents. Titanium alloys are known for their high tensile strength and hence used aircrafts, armour plating and missiles. The alkaline earth titanates are used in ultrasonic vibrations generators and sound generators.

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