AISI 1045 Carbon Steel (UNS G10450)

Topics Covered

Introduction
Chemical Composition
Physical Properties
Thermal Properties
Other Designations
Fabrication and Heat Treatment
     Heat Treatment
     Forging
Applications

Introduction

Carbon steels are a category of steels with 0.12 to 2% carbon content. AISI 1045 is a medium carbon steel designed to be able to function in areas requiring greater strength and hardness. This steel possesses excellent size accuracy, concentricity, and straightness which together enable to minimize wear in high speed applications. AISI 1045 can be formed into turned, ground and polished bars that can be machined unsymmetrically with limited distortion.

The following sections will discuss in detail about AISI 1045 carbon steel.

Chemical Composition

The chemical composition of AISI 1045 carbon steel is outlined in the following table.

Element Content (%)
Carbon, C 0.43-0.50
Manganese, Mn 0.60-0.90
Sulfur, S 0.05 (max)
Phosphorous, P 0.04 (max)
Iron, Fe Balance

Physical Properties

The physical properties of AISI 1045 carbon steel are tabulated below.

Properties Metric Imperial
Density 7.87 g/cm3 0.284 lb/in3

Mechanical Properties

The following table shows mechanical properties of cold rolled AISI 1045 carbon steel.

Properties Metric Imperial
Tensile strength 585 MPa 84800 psi
Yield strength 450 MPa 65300 psi
Modulus of elasticity 200 GPa 29000 ksi
Shear modulus (typical for steel) 80 GPa 11600 ksi
Poisson’s ratio 0.29 0.29
Elongation at break (in 50 mm) 12 % 12 %
Hardness, Brinell 163 163
Hardness, Knoop (converted from Brinell hardness) 184 184
Hardness, Rockwell B (converted from Brinell hardness) 84 84
Hardness, Vickers (converted from Brinell hardness) 170 170

Thermal Properties

The thermal properties of cold drawn AISI 1045 carbon steel are given in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial
Thermal conductivity 51.9 W/mK 360 BTU in/hr.ft2.°F
Thermal expansion co-efficient (@0.000-100°C/32-212°F) 11.2 µm/m°C 6.22 µm/m°C

Other Designations

Other designations that are equivalent to AISI 1045 carbon steel include the following.

AFNOR XC 42 TS AFNOR XC 45 AFNOR XC 48 AFNOR XC42
DIN 1.1191 JIS S 45C JIS S 48 C SS 1672
ASTM A29 ASTM A510 ASTM A519 ASTM A576
FED QQ-S-635 (C1045) FED QQ-S-700 (1045) SAE J403 ASTM A682
SAE J414 ASTM A183 (2-Nuts) ASTM A236 (1045) SAE J412
ASTM A266 (1045) ASTM A827 ASTM A830 QQ S700 (C1045)
SAE J1397 (1045)      

Fabrication and Heat Treatment

Heat Treatment

AISI 1045 carbon steel can be heat treated using flame and induction hardening.

Forging

AISI 1045 carbon steel can be hammer forged.

Applications

The following are the application areas of AISI 1045 carbon steel:

  • Bolts
  • Studs
  • Gears
  • Axles
  • Shafts
  • Machine parts.

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