Wrought Iron - Properties, Applications

Topics Covered

Chemical Composition
Physical Properties
Mechanical Properties


Wrought iron is an iron alloy with very low carbon content with respect to cast iron. It is soft, ductile, magnetic, and has high elasticity and tensile strength. It can be heated and reheated and worked into various shapes.

Although wrought iron exhibits properties that are not found in other forms of ferrous metal, it lacks the carbon content necessary for hardening through heat treatment. Wrought iron may be welded in the same manner as mild steel, but the presence of oxides or inclusions will provide defective results.

The following sections will discuss wrought iron in more detail.

Chemical Composition

The chemical composition of wrought iron is outlined in the following table.

Element Content (%)
Iron, Fe 99-99.8
Carbon, C 0.05-0.25
Phosphorus, P 0.05-0.2
Silicon, Si 0.02-0.2
Sulfur, S 0.02-0.1
Manganese, Mn 0.01-0.1

Physical Properties

The following table shows the physical properties of wrought iron.

Properties Metric Imperial
Density 7.7 g/cm3 0.278 lb/in3
Melting point 1540°C 2800°F

Mechanical Properties

The mechanical properties of wrought iron are displayed in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial
Tensile strength 234-372 MPa 34000-54000 psi
Yield strength 159-221 MPa 23000-32000 psi
Modulus of elasticity 193100 MPa 28000 ksi


The following are the list of applications of wrought iron:

  • Decorative items such as railings, outdoor stairs, fences and gates
  • Nuts and bolts
  • Handrails.


  1. John Odom John Odom United States says:

    This article leaves a VERY inportant feature, The unique texture of wrought Iron do to its unique method of manufacture. Wrought Iron is very different in properties from a steel of the same bulk analysis. I hope some qualoified person can make the addtions. As it is, the article notes no differnece between Wrought Iron and very low carbon steel, which behave very differently in practice.

  2. shuaib saifi shuaib saifi India says:

    sir i want to chemical properties,physical properties,mechanical properties and application of pig iron cast iron,alloy steel and carbon steel

  3. The Gate Company Online The Gate Company Online India says:

    Thanks for sharing this valuable information. I fully agree with your point of view. it’s really helpful for increasing our knowledge.

The opinions expressed here are the views of the writer and do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of AZoM.com.

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