Fire Properties of Polymer Composite Materials
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This book is the first to deal with the important topic of the fire behaviour of fibre reinforced polymer composite materials. Composites are used in almost every conceivable application, although the high flammability and poor fire resistance of these materials remains a critical issue. The book covers all of the key issues on the behaviour of composites in a fire, including thermal degradation mechanisms, thermal softening, fire damage mechanics, and deterioration of mechanical properties. Also covered are fire protection materials for composites, fire properties of nanocomposites, fire safety regulations and standards, fire test methods, and health hazards from burning composites. This book will be of great interest to professionals in the composites industry, fire safety engineers, researchers in the fire properties of materials, and the users of composites in the aerospace, marine, civil infrastructure and automotive industries.
Table of contents
Preface 1; Introduction: 1.1 Background; 1.2 Fire reaction and fire resistive properties of composites; 1.3 Composites and fire; 1.4 Case studies of composites in fire; 1.5 Concluding remarks; References; 2Thermal Decomposition of Composites in Fire: 2.1 Introduction2.2. Thermal decomposition mechanisms of organic polymers; 2/3 Rate processes and characterisation of decomposition; 2.4 Polymers and their decomposition processes; 2.5 Fire damage to composites; 2.6 Concluding remarks; References; 3 Fire Reaction Properties of Composites: 3.1 Introduction; 3.2 Time-to-ignition; 3.3 Heat release rate; 3.4 Extinction flammability index & thermal stability index; 3.5 Mass loss ; 3.6 Smoke; 3.7 Smoke toxicity; 3.8 Limiting oxygen index; 3.9 Surface spread of flame; 3.10 Fire resistance; References; 4. Fire Modelling of Composites: 4.1 Introduction; 4.2 Thermal exposure; 4.3 Modelling material fire dynamics; 4.4 Structural modelling of fire response; References; 5 Modelling the Thermal Response of Composites in Fire: 5.1 Introduction; 5.2 Response of composites to fire; 5.3 Modelling heat conduction in composites; 5.4 Modelling the fire response of composites; 5.5 Modelling the thermal properties of composites; 5.6 Concluding remarks; References; 6. Structural Properties of Composites in Fire: 6.1 Introduction; 6.2 Laminate properties; 6.3 Measurement of elastic constants; 6.4 Mechanical properties as a function of temperature; 6.5 Modelling of properties; 6.6 Fire resistance of laminates under load; 6.7 Modelling of fire resistance of laminates under load; 6.8 Concluding remarks; References; 7. Post-Fire Properties of Composites: 7.1 Introduction; 7.2 Post-fire properties of laminates; 7.3 Modelling the post-fire properties of laminates; 7.4 Post-fire properties of sandwich composites ; 7.5 Post-fire properties of fire protected composites; 7.6 Concluding remarks; References; 8 Flame Retardant Composites: 8.1 Introduction; 8.2 The combustion cycle; 8.3 Flame retardants for composites; 8.4 Flame retardant fillers for composite; 8.5 Flame retardant organic polymers for composites; 8.6 Flame retardant inorganic polymers for composites; 8.7 Flame retardant fibres for composites; 8.8 Fire protective surface coatings; References; 9 Fire Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites: 9.1 Introduction; 9.2 Characterization of nanocomposite formation; 9.3 Evaluation of fire retardancy; 9.4 Clay modifications; 9.5 Examples of fire retardancy of polymer nanocomposites; 9.6 Mechanisms of fire retardancy in nanocomposites; 9.7 Future trends in fire retardancy of nanocomposites; References; 10 Fire Safety Regulations: 10.1 Introduction; 10.2 Fire safety regulations for rail; 10.3 Fire safety regulations for automobiles, buses and trucks; 10.4 Fire safety regulations for civil infrastructure; 10.5 Fire safety regulations for civilian aircraft; 10.6 Fire safety regulations for ships and submarines; References; 11 Fire Tests for Composites: 11.1 Introduction; 11.2 Scale of fire reaction tests; 11.3 Cone calorimeter; 11.4 Atmosphere controlled cone calorimeter; 11.5 Intermediate-scale cone calorimeter; 11.6 Ohio State University calorimeter; 11.7 Limiting oxygen index test; 11.8 Flame spread tests; 11.9 Smoke density tests; 11.10 Furnace tests; 11.11 Burn-through & jet-fire tests; 11.12 Single burning item test; 11.13 Room fire tests; 11.14 Structural integrity in fire tests; 11.15 Aircraft fire tests; 11.16 Concluding remarks; References; 12 Health Hazards of Composites in Fire: 12.1 Introduction; 12.2 Smoke toxicity test methods; 12.3 Health hazards of combustion gases; 12.4 N-gas model for smoke toxic potency; 12.5 Health hazards of fibres; 12.6 Personal protective wear against burning composite materials; 12.7 Concluding remarks; References; Subject Index