Freeman Technology Publishes New White Paper Examining Mechanisms Of Powder Caking

Freeman Technology has published a new white paper that describes extensive experimental studies examining the multiple mechanisms that lead to powder caking. Caking is a routinely encountered problem within powder handling applications which compromises productivity and increases waste.

New white paper from Freeman Technology on caking – a common problem from the powder processing industries.

The new white paper ‘Investigations into homogeneous and non-homogeneous caking and crusting in powders using powder rheology’ demonstrates how dynamic powder testing can be used to quantify caking behaviour under different environmental conditions. The resulting data support the development of strategies that reduce caking and maintain optimum powder processability. The paper can be freely downloaded from the Freeman Technology website:

More than 70% of the materials handled in the food, pharmaceutical and chemical industries are powders. The ability of these materials to flow freely is often fundamental to their industrial value and this is obviously compromised by caking. Caking is the result of an increase in the strength of particle-particle interactions in a powder and is caused by exposure to temperature, humidity and/or stress. Understanding whether a raw material, intermediate or final product is likely to cake, and under what conditions, is an essential precursor to identifying policies that avoid the problem.

Freeman Technology has used powder rheology to investigate thermal, chemical and mechanical caking mechanisms in several different powders, including food, polymer and detergent systems. Tests have been carried out with the FT4 Powder Rheometer®, a universal powder tester that provides dynamic, shear and bulk powder property measurement. The results show that dynamic powder flow properties are highly relevant for the quantification and elucidation of caking and crusting mechanisms. In particular, the ability of dynamic testing to measure the strength of a crust within a powder bed, as a function of bed height, provides unique insight into the effect of moisture absorption on caking behaviour.

Download the new white paper at:

Freeman Technology and Powder Rheometer are registered trademarks of Freeman Technology Ltd.

About Freeman Technology

Freeman Technology specialises in systems for measuring the flow properties of powders and has over a decade of experience in powder flow and powder characterisation. Expert teams provide detailed know-how alongside the company’s universal powder tester, the FT4 Powder Rheometer®.

The FT4 Powder Rheometer uses patented dynamic methodology, a fully automated shear cell and several bulk property tests to quantify powder properties in terms of flow and processability. Systems are installed around the world across many different industries. They deliver data that maximise process and product understanding, accelerating R&D and formulation towards successful commercialisation, and supporting the long term optimisation of powder processes.

Freeman Technology’s headquarters are in Gloucestershire, UK, with  operations in the USA and China, and distribution partners in Brazil, France, India, Ireland, Japan and South-East Asia. In 2007 the company received the Queen’s Award for Enterprise in Innovation and in 2012 the Queen’s Award for Enterprise in International Trade

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