Editorial Feature

Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries Advance Large-Scale Energy Storage

This article discusses vanadium redox flow batteries and their working and compares them with other energy storage technologies.

Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries, Redox Flow Batteries, Redox Flow

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What is a Redox Flow Battery

A redox flow battery operates on the electrochemical principle of storing and generating electricity through oxidation and reduction reactions between distinct active materials, hence called "Redox" (i.e., "Red" from reducation and "Ox" from oxidation). The key feature that makes them different from conventional batteries is the separation of active materials from the cell where electric current is generated.

Instead of being permanently enclosed in the cell, these materials are stored separately and dynamically pumped into the cell based on energy demand. Redox flow batteries come in various types distinguished by solvent and form of active materials.

Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries (VRFBs) store energy in liquid electrolytes containing vanadium ions in different oxidation states. Compared to traditional batteries that have solid electrodes, vanadium redox flow batteries utilize two separate electrolyte tanks containing vanadium in V2+ form and vanadium in V5+ form, respectively. The electrolytes flow through these separate chambers, and the electrochemical reactions take place in the cells' stack, generating electrical energy.

Key Advantages of VRFBs

Vanadium redox flow batteries have several unique advantages for small and large-scale applications. For instance, the energy storage capacity of vanadium redox flow batteries can be easily adjusted by manipulating the volume of electrolytes to meet both small-scale and large-scale energy demands.

Vanadium redox flow batteries can be discharged to very low energy levels without causing damage, making them suitable for applications where occasional deep discharges are necessary, such as grid stabilization. Moreover, they have a longer cycle life than many other battery technologies since their liquid electrolyte design reduces electrode wear and tear.

Recent Developments

Novel Spiral Flow Field for VRFBs

In a recent study, researchers addressed the low energy density challenge of vanadium redox flow batteries to enhance their large-scale stationary energy storage capabilities. They introduced a novel spiral flow field (NSFF) to improve electrolyte distribution characteristics, reducing local concentration polarization compared to traditional flow fields. Despite the NSFF causing a larger pressure drop and lower system efficiency due to its extended flow channel, it demonstrated superior coulombic efficiency, voltage efficiency, and energy efficiency.

The study highlights the potential of NSFF for small-stack applications. As renewable energy sources expand, the study emphasizes the importance of electrochemical energy storage, with vanadium redox flow batteries positioned as efficient, reliable, and environmentally friendly solutions for large-scale energy storage.

Electrode Enhancements for VRFB Efficiency

Another recent study focused on enhancing the performance of vanadium redox flow batteries by modifying carbon electrodes. The researchers explored three different modifications, including an iron-doped carbon–nitrogen base material (Fe–N–C + carbon nanotube), Vulcan XC 72R, and poly(o-toluidine) (POT ). The study investigated the impact of these modifications on electrode properties using a combination of synchrotron X-ray imaging, scanning electron microscopy, dynamic vapor sorption, and electrochemical measurements.

POT and Vulcan XC 72R showed hindered electrolyte transport through the electrode, affecting cell efficiency. Fe–N–C + CNT displayed potential in the positive half-cell but catalyzed the hydrogen evolution side reaction in the negative half-cell. The study emphasizes the importance of electrode modifications for optimizing vanadium redox flow batteries, providing insights into wettability, permeability, and side reactions crucial for large-scale energy storage.

Comparison with Other Energy Storage Technologies

Compared with other energy storage technologies, vanadium redox flow batteries have several unique advantages. For example, as compared to solid-state batteries, vanadium redox flow batteries are considered more scalable, safe, and a viable alternative. Lithium-ion batteries are market leaders when it comes to small-scale applications; however, vanadium redox flow batteries outperform lithium-ion batteries in large-scale storage due to their flexibility in capacity adjustment and longer cycle life.

On the other hand, pumped hydro storage has been a traditional large-scale energy storage solution but is geographically constrained. In this regard, vanadium redox flow batteries offer more flexibility in deployment and are not limited by geography.


Vanadium redox flow batteries face several key challenges hindering their widespread adoption. For instance, vanadium redox flow batteries rely on vanadium, which is a relatively expensive and scarce metal, making it costly for widespread use. The corrosive nature of vanadium electrolytes poses durability issues in some settings, leading to performance degradation over time in those settings.

However, research and development efforts like those mentioned above are underway to address these challenges, aiming to enhance energy density, reduce material costs, and improve overall efficiency to make vanadium redox flow batteries more competitive in the energy storage market.


In conclusion, vanadium redox flow batteries are an excellent solution for large-scale energy storage. Their unique design, utilizing liquid electrolytes with vanadium ions in different oxidation states, allows for adjustable energy storage capacity and extended cycle life. Recent advancements, such as the novel spiral flow field and electrode modifications, address challenges and enhance efficiency, positioning vanadium redox flow batteries as efficient, reliable, and environmentally friendly options. Vanadium redox flow batteries demonstrate scalability, safety, and flexibility, outperforming many energy storage technologies.

More from AZoM: New Breakthrough in Energy Storage Technologies

References and Further Reading

Cunha, Á., Martins, J., Rodrigues, N., & Brito, F. P. (2015). Vanadium redox flow batteries: a technology review. International Journal of Energy Research. https://doi.org/10.1002/er.3260

Doǧan, H., Taş, M., Meşeli, T., Elden, G., & Genc, G. (2023). Review on the applications of biomass-derived carbon materials in vanadium redox flow batteries. ACS omega. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.3c03648

Huang, Z., Mu, A., Wu, L., Wang, H., & Zhang, Y. (2021). Electrolyte flow optimization and performance metrics analysis of vanadium redox flow battery for large-scale stationary energy storage. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2021.06.220

Karrech, A. (2024). Large-scale all-climate vanadium batteries. Applied Energy. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2023.122324

Köble, K., Schilling, M., Eifert, L., Bevilacqua, N., Fahy, K. F., Atanassov, P., ... & Zeis, R. (2023). Revealing the Multifaceted Impacts of Electrode Modifications for Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Electrodes. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.3c07940

Disclaimer: The views expressed here are those of the author expressed in their private capacity and do not necessarily represent the views of AZoM.com Limited T/A AZoNetwork the owner and operator of this website. This disclaimer forms part of the Terms and conditions of use of this website.

Taha Khan

Written by

Taha Khan

Taha graduated from HITEC University Taxila with a Bachelors in Mechanical Engineering. During his studies, he worked on several research projects related to Mechanics of Materials, Machine Design, Heat and Mass Transfer, and Robotics. After graduating, Taha worked as a Research Executive for 2 years at an IT company (Immentia). He has also worked as a freelance content creator at Lancerhop. In the meantime, Taha did his NEBOSH IGC certification and expanded his career opportunities.  


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