AISI 1022 Low Carbon Steel

Topics Covered

Introduction
Chemical Composition
Physical Properties
Mechanical Properties
Machining
Weldability
Heat Treatment
Cold Working
Hot Working
Forging
Hardening
Tempering
Aging
Annealing
Applications of AISI 1022 Steel

Introduction

Hot rolled AISI 1022 steel is a low hardenability carbon steel with low tensile strength ranging between 360-560 MPa. AISI 1022 low carbon steel has Brinell hardness ranging between 100 – 170 and it is mostly supplied in the black hot rolled condition. Compared to AISI 1020 steel, AISI 1022 steel has a higher content of manganese and carbon.

AISI 1022 steel is usually used in the rolled condition. AISI 1022 can be carburized achieving case hardness more than Rc65 with smaller sections. The case hardness reduces with an increase in section size. Hot rolled AISI 1022 low carbon steel has excellent machinability and ductility with reasonable strength.

Chemical Composition

Element Content
Carbon, C 0.17 - 0.230 %
Iron, Fe 98.68 - 99.13 %
Manganese, Mn 0.70 - 1.0 %
Phosphorous, P ≤ 0.040 %
Sulfur, S ≤ 0.050 %

Physical Properties

Physical Properties Metric Imperial
Density 7.858 g/cc 0.2839 lb/in3

Mechanical Properties

Mechanical Properties Metric Imperial
Hardness, Brinell 111 111
Hardness, Knoop (Converted from Brinell Hardness) 128 128
Hardness, Vickers (Converted from Brinell Hardness) 112 112
Tensile Strength, Ultimate 380 MPa 55100 psi
Tensile Strength, Yield 205 MPa 29700 psi
Elongation at Break 25.0 % 25.0 %
Reduction of Area 50.0 % 50.0 %
Bulk Modulus (Typical for steel) 140 GPa 20300 ksi
Poissons Ratio 0.290 0.290
Shear Modulus (Typical for steel) 80.0 GPa 11600 ksi

Machining

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The machinability of AISI 1022 low carbon steel is graded at 70% against the 100% machinability of the standard AISI 1112 steel. In the black hot rolled supplied condition AISI 1022 steel’s machinability is a bit lower than the machinability of M1020 bright steel. The softness of the hot rolled structure causes it to wrap around the cutting tool and resulting in a less clean cut.

Weldability

AISI 1022 steel can be readily welded by all standard welding methods. Pre-heating and post-heating processes are recommended for heavy sections of AISI 1022 steel.

Heat Treatment

Suitable heat treatment for AISI 1022 low carbon steel consists of the following processes:

  • Hot Working
  • Forging
  • Hardening
  • Tempering
  • Ageing
  • Annealing

Cold Working

  • Conventional methods are used in the cold working process for AISI 1022 steel. An anneal may be needed after severe cold working.

Hot Working

  • AISI 1022 steel requires 482.2°C -93.3 °C (900°F to 200°F) for the hot working process.

Forging

  • AISI 1022 steel is forged at 1288 °C-982°C (2350°F to 1800°F). The steel is heated to a maximum of 1100°C to 1200°C, held till the temperature is uniform throughout the section and forging is commenced. Forging below 900°C is not recommended. Finished forgings may be air cooled.

Hardening

  • AISI 1022 steel is hardened by quenching, tempering and heat treatment. It can also be hardened by the cold working process.

Tempering

  • Based on the required strength level AISI 1022 steel can be tempered after the heat treatment and quenching process at 316°C-593°C (600°F to 1100 F).

Aging

  • This is not applicable for AISI 1022 steel.

Annealing

  • A stress relief anneal on AISI 1022 steel is performed at 538 °C (1000°F) and a full anneal is performed at 927 °C (1700°F) with slow furnace cooling.

Applications of AISI 1022 Steel

The applications of AISI 1022 steel include:

  • It is used by industry sectors for carburized parts that are lightly stressed and for welding applications.
  • It is used for structural applications with moderate strength such as bolts and cold formed fasteners.
  • Recessed-head screws, low-strength fasteners, motor spindles and die pins utilize AISI 1022 steel.
  • AISI 1022 steel is used a lot in case hardened conditions.
  • Some typical applications of AISI 1022 steel include welded structures and general engineering parts and components.
  • Some carburized applications of AISI 1022 steel include light duty gears, camshafts, worm gears, spindles, ratchets and gudgon pins.

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