Free-Cutting Phosphor Bronze – Copper Alloy UNS C54400

Topics Covered

Introduction
Chemical Composition
Physical Properties
Mechanical Properties
Thermal Properties
Other Designations
Fabrication and Heat Treatment
     Machinability
     Welding
     Cold Working
     Annealing
Applications

Introduction

Free-cutting phosphor bronze – copper alloy UNS C54400 has good cold working properties. Tin provides resistance to corrosion and strength to the alloy where as phosphorus improves the wear resistance and stiffness of the alloy. Phosphor bronzes are used for electrical products owing to their excellent formability and solderability.

The following datasheet provides the chemical composition and properties of UNS C54400.

Chemical Composition

The chemical composition of copper alloy UNS C54400 is represented in the following table.

Element Content (%)
Copper 88.0
Lead 3.5-4.5
Tin 3.5-4.5
Zinc 1.5-4.5
Phosphorus 0.01-0.05
Iron ≤0.10

Physical Properties

The following table details the physical properties of UNS C54400.

Properties Metric Imperial
Density 8.89 g/cc 0.321 lb/in³
Melting point 926°C 1700°F

Mechanical Properties

The mechanical properties of copper alloy UNS C54400 are outlined in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial
Tensile strength 303 - 517 MPa 43900 - 75000 psi
Yield strength 131 - 434 MPa 19000 - 62900 psi
Elongation at break 50.00% 50.00%
Machinability 80 80
Shear modulus 39.0 GPa 5660 ksi
Poisson's ratio 0.34 0.34
Elastic modulus 117 GPa 16969 ksi

Thermal Properties

The following table shows the thermal properties of UNS C54400.

Properties Metric Imperial
Thermal expansion co-efficient ( Temperature 20.0-300 °C ) 17.3 µm/m°C 9.61 µin/in°F
Thermal conductivity ( Temperature 20.0 °C ) 87.0 W/mK 604 BTUin/hr.ft².°F

Other Designations

Equivalent designations to copper alloy UNS C54400 include:

  • ASTM B103
  • ASTM B139
  • SAE J461
  • SAE J463

Fabrication and Heat Treatment

Machinability

The machinability rating of copper alloy UNS C54400 is 80.

Welding

The welding techniques preferred for UNS C54400 are soldering, brazing and butt welding. Oxyacetylene welding, gas shielded, coated metal arc welding, spot welding and seam welding are not recommended for UNS C54400.

Cold Working

UNS C54400 can be cold worked in a very good method.

Annealing

Copper alloy UNS C54400 is annealed at temperatures ranging between 482 and 676°C (900 and 1250°F).

Applications

The applications of UNS C54400 include:

  • Bearings
  • Cam followers

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