The Surface Force Apparatus (SFA) is an essential tool for understanding static and non-static (dynamic) surface forces of nanoparticles, proteins, polymers, and many others in vapor and liquids.
The SFA is an excellent complimentary instrument providing the absolute measured separation distance, local surface shape profiles, exact contact area, and the refractive index of the material between the surfaces. With these directly measured observables, the SFA is well-suited to dynamic or non-equilibrium interactions.
What an SFA Measures
Surface normal forces and adhesion, shear forces (friction), absolute separation distance, exact contact area, surface deformations during contact, dynamic or non-equilibrium interactions.
What Can Be Analyzed with an SFA
Biological/biomolecular, molecularly thin films. Colloids, Ionic Liquids, Polymers/Polymer Brushes, Food emulsions, Nanoparticles, Pressure Solution/Dissolution.
Its success has been proven in 4,000+ research publications benefiting physics, biology, and chemistry.