CompositionPhysical PropertiesMechanical PropertiesThermal PropertiesOther DesignationsFabrication and Heat
Treatment Machinability Forming Welding Heat
Treatment Forging Hot
Working Annealing Tempering HardeningApplications
AISI 1040 carbon steel has high carbon content and can be hardened by heat
treatment followed by quenching and tempering to achieve 150 to 250 ksi tensile
The following datasheet gives an overview of AISI 1040 carbon steel.
The following table shows the chemical composition of AISI 1040 carbon
The physical properties of AISI 1040 carbon steel are tabulated below.
|Density (chemical composition of 0.435% C, 0.69%
Mn, 0.20% Si, annealed at 860°C (1580°F))
The mechanical properties of AISI 1040 carbon steel are outlined in the
|Bulk modulus (typical for steels)
|Shear modulus (typical for steels)
|Elongation at break (in 50 mm)
|Reduction of area
|Hardness, Knoop (converted from Brinell
|Hardness, Rockwell B (converted from Brinell
|Hardness, Rockwell C (converted from Brinell
hardness. Value below normal HRC range, for comparison purposes only)
|Hardness, Vickers (converted from Brinell
|Izod impact (annealed at 790°C (1450°F))
|Izod impact (as rolled)
|Izod impact (normalized at 900°C (1650°F)
The thermal properties of AISI 1040 carbon steel are given in the following
|Thermal expansion co-efficient (@
20-100°C/68-212°F, composition of 0.40% C, 0.11% Mn, 0.01% P, 0.03% S, 0.03% Si,
|Thermal conductivity (@ 100°C/212°F)
||352 BTU in/hr.ft².°F|
|Thermal conductivity (@ 0°C)
||360 BTU in/hr.ft².°F|
Other designations that are equivalent to AISI 1040 carbon steel include:
- ASTM A29 (1040)
- ASTM A510 (1040)
- ASTM A513
- ASTM A519 (1040)
- ASTM A546 (1040)
- ASTM A576 (1040)
- ASTM A682 (1040)
- ASTM A827
- ASTM A830
- MIL S-11310 (CS 1040)
- MIL S-16788
- MIL S-46070
- SAE J1397 (1040)
- SAE J403 (1040)
- SAE J412 (1040)
Fabrication and Heat Treatment
The machinability rating of AISI 1040 carbon steel is 60.
AISI 1040 carbon steel can be formed in the annealed condition.
AISI 1040 carbon steel can be welded using all welding techniques. It can be
pre-heated at 149 to 260°C (300 to 500°F) and post-heated at 594 to 649°C (1100
to 1200°F) due to its high carbon content.
AISI 1040 carbon steel can be heat treated at 844 to 899°C (1550 to 1650°F)
followed by quenching in water and tempering.
AISI 1040 carbon steel can be forged at 982 to 1260°C (1800 to 2300°F).
AISI 1040 carbon steel can be hot worked from 94 to 483°C (200 to 900°F
AISI 1040 carbon steel can be cold worked in the annealed state using
AISI 1040 carbon steel can be annealed at temperatures ranging from 872 to
983°C (1600 to 1800°F). It can be then slowly cooled in the furnace. Stress
relief annealing process can be performed at a temperature of about 594°C
(1100°F). Normalizing treatment can also be performed at 899°C (1650°F) followed
by cooling slowly.
AISI 1040 carbon steel can be tempered at 316 to 705°C (600 to 1300°F) based
on the desired strength.
AISI 1040 carbon steel can be hardened by performing cold working
AISI 1040 carbon steel can be used in couplings, crankshafts, and cold headed