AISI 52100 Alloy Steel (UNS G52986)

Topics Covered

Introduction
Chemical Composition
Physical Properties
Mechanical properties
Thermal Properties
Fabrication and Heat Treatment
     Machinability
     Forming
     Heat Treatment
     Forging
     Hot Working
     Cold Working
     Annealing
     Hardening
Applications

Introduction

Alloy steels contain different varieties of steels that exceed the composition limits of Mn, C, Mo, Si, Ni, Va, and B set for carbon steels. They are designated by AISI four-digit numbers. They respond more quickly to mechanical and heat treatments than carbon steels.

AISI 52100 alloy steel is known as a high carbon, chromium containing low alloy steel. The following datasheet gives an overview of AISI 52100 alloy steel.

Chemical Composition

The following table shows the chemical composition of AISI 52100 alloy steel.

Element Content (%)
Iron, Fe 96.5 - 97.32
Chromium, Cr 1.30 - 1.60
Carbon, C 0.980 - 1.10
Manganese, Mn 0.250 - 0.450
Silicon, Si 0.150 - 0.300
Sulfur, S ≤ 0.0250
Phosphorous, P ≤ 0.0250

Physical Properties

The physical properties of AISI 52100 alloy steel are listed in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial
Density 7.81 g/cm3 0.282 lb/in³
Melting point 1424°C 2595°F

Mechanical properties

The mechanical properties of AISI 52100 alloy steel are outlined in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial
Bulk modulus (typical for steel) 140 GPa 20300 ksi
Shear modulus (typical for steel) 80 GPa 11600 ksi
Elastic modulus 190-210 GPa 27557-30458 ksi
Poisson's ratio 0.27-0.30 0.27-0.30
Hardness, Brinell - -
Hardness, Knoop (converted from Rockwell C hardness) 875 875
Hardness, Rockwell C (quenched in oil from 150°C tempered) 62 62
Hardness, Rockwell C (quenched in water from 150°C tempered) 64 64
Hardness, Rockwell C (quenched in oil) 64 64
Hardness, Rockwell C (quenched in water) 66 66
Hardness, Vickers (converted from Rockwell C hardness) 848 848
Machinability (spheroidized annealed and cold drawn. Based on 100 machinability for AISI 1212 steel) 40 40

Thermal Properties

The thermal properties of AISI 52100 alloy steel are given in the following table.

Properties Metric Imperial
Thermal expansion co-efficient (@ 23-280°C/73.4- 36°F, annealed) 11.9 µm/m°C 6.61 µin/in°F
Thermal conductivity (typical steel) 46.6 W/mK 323 BTU in/hr.ft².°F

Fabrication and Heat Treatment

Machinability

AISI 52100 alloy steel can be machined using conventional techniques. The machinability of this steel can be improved by performing spherodizing annealing process at 649°C (1200°F) before machining.

Forming

AISI 52100 alloy steel can be formed using all conventional techniques such as cold forging or stamping and hot or cold upset forming techniques.

Heat Treatment

AISI 52100 alloy steel is heated at 816°C (1500°F) followed by quenching in oil. Before performing this process, it is subjected to normalizing heat treatment at 872°C (1600°F) followed by slowly cooling in order to reduce the machining stress.

Forging

AISI 52100 alloy steel is forged at 927 to 1205°C (1700 to 2200°F).

Hot Working

AISI 52100 alloy steel can be hot worked at 205 to 538°C (400 to 1000°F).

Cold Working

AISI 52100 alloy steel can be cold worked using conventional techniques in the annealed or normalized conditions.

Annealing

AISI 52100 alloy steel is annealed at 872°C (1600°F) followed by slowly cooling to reduce cold working or machining stress.

Hardening

AISI 52100 alloy steel is hardened by cold working, or heating and quenching. It can be carburized at 913°C (1675°F) followed by quenching. It is again heated at 788°C (1450°F) followed by quenching for the second time.

Applications

AISI 52100 alloy steel is used in bearings in rotating machinery.

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